of plunder were thus obtained, while property of much greater value was destroyed; and enough recruits were doubtless gathered to offset the waste of war. Still, military operations, without a base and without regular supplies, seldom produce substantial, enduring results; and the Confederate
guerrillas either soon abandoned Kentucky
or concealed themselves and lay quiet therein.
The leaders, with most of their followers, retired into Tennessee
, where they captured Clarksville1
and possessed themselves of ample military stores; and a sharp cavalry fight at Gallatin
resulted in a Union defeat, with a loss of 30 killed, 50 wounded, and 75 prisoners.
had left Corinth
in June, moving eastward, as if intent on Chattanooga
; but Gen. Bragg
--who had succeeded to the chief command of the Rebels
confronting him — had thereupon moved more rapidly, on parallel roads, from Tupelo, Miss.
, through northern Alabama
, to Chattanooga
, which he reached ahead of Buell
's army had been swelled by conscription to some 45,000 men, organized in three corps, under Hardee
, Bishop Polk
, and Kirby Smith
respectively, whereof the last was sent to Knoxville
, while the two former sufficed to hold Chattanooga
against any effort which Buell
was likely to make.
's Richmond campaign having proved abortive, while conscription had largely replenished the Rebel
was impelled to try a bold stroke for the recovery of Tennessee
and the “liberation” of Kentucky
As with Lee
's kindred advance into Maryland
, the increasing scarcity of food was the more immediate, while fond expectations of a general rising in support of the Confederate
cause, afforded the remoter incitement to this step.
, with its immense resources, was the immediate object of this gigantic raid, though Cincinnati
was thought to be also within its purview.
, a few miles above Chattanooga
, with 36 regiments of infantry, 5 of cavalry, and 40 guns, Bragg
traversed the rugged mountain ridges which hem in the Sequatchie Valley
, passing through Dunlap
masking his movement by a feint with cavalry on McMinnville
, but rapidly withdrawing this when its purpose was accomplished, and pressing hurriedly northward, to Kentucky
; which he entered on the 5th.
, with his division, from Knoxville
, advanced by Jacksonborough6
across the Cumberland
range, through Big Creek Gap
, moving as rapidly as possible, with a very light train ; his men subsisting mainly on green corn — which is scarce enough in that poor, thinly-peopled region — his hungry, foot-sore, dusty followers buoyed up with the assurance of plenty and comfort ahead.
His cavalry advance, 900 strong, under Col. J. S. Scott
from Kingston, Tenn.
, passed through Montgomery
and Jamestown, Tenn.
, and Monticello
and Somerset, Ky.
, to London
, where it surprised8
and routed a battalion of Union cavalry, inflicting a loss of 30 killed and wounded and 111 prisoners; thence pushing on, making additional captures by the