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[377] the right, as if his intended point of concentration were Gettysburg also. But, in fact, foreseeing that Lee must give battle, lie had issued a timely address to his officers,1 and was moving circumspectly east of north, looking for advantageous ground whereon to fight, and had about fixed on the line of Pipe creek, some 15 miles south-east of Gettysburg, when an unexpected encounter precipitated the grand collision.

Gettysburg, the capital of Adams county, is a rural village of 3,000 inhabitants, the focus of a well-cultivated upland region. Though long settled and blessed with excellent country roads, all centering on the borough, much of it is too rugged for cultivation; hence, it is covered with wood. The village is in a valley, or rather on the northern slope of a hill; with a college and other edifices on the opposite hill, which rises directly from the little run at its foot.

Part of our cavalry advance, under Gen. Kilpatrick, pushed out from Frederick,2 moving north-west through Liberty and Taneytown to Hanover, Pa., where they were considerably astonished3 by an attack from Stuart's cavalry — not imagining that there was any enemy within a march of them. A sharp fight ensued, wherein Gen. G. F. Farnsworth's brigade was at first roughly handled, losing 100 men; but Gen. Custer's, which had passed, returned to its aid, and the enemy was beaten off. A similar dash was simultaneously made on the train of another column of our cavalry at Littlestown, but easily repulsed. Meantime, Gen. Buford, with another division, had moved directly upon Gettysburg; where lie encountered4 the van of the Rebel army, under Gen. Heth, of Hill's corps, and drove it back on the division, by whom our troopers were repelled in their turn. And now the advance division of Gen. Reynolds's (1st) corps, under command of Gen. J. S. Wadsworth, approaching from Emmitsburg, quickened its pace at the familiar sound of volleys, and, rushing through the village, drove back the Rebel van, seizing and occupying the ridge that overlooks the place from tile north-west.

Gen. John F. Reynolds, formerly of the Pennsylvania Reserves, was in command of the two corps (1st and 11th) now rapidly coming up, together numbering about 22,000 men. As Gen. Wadsworth was forming his advance division, 4,000 strong, in order of battle, Gen. Reynolds went forward to reconnoiter, and, seeing that the enemy were in force in a grove just ahead, he dismounted and was observing them through a fence, when he was struck in the neck by a sharp-shooter's bullet, and, falling on his face, was dead in a few minutes. Born in Lancaster in 1820; entering the army in 1846; he had

1

headquarters army of the Potomac, June 30, 1863.
The commanding general requests that, previous to the engagement soon expected with the enemy, corps and all other commanding officers will address their troops, explaining to them briefly the immense issues involved in the struggle. The enemy are on our soil; the whole country now looks anxiously to this army to deliver it from the presence of the foe; our failure to do so will leave us no such welcome as the swelling of millions of hearts with pride and joy at our success would give to every soldier of this army. Homes, firesides, and domestic altars, are involved. The army has fought well heretofore; it is believed that it will fight more desperately and bravely than ever, if it is addressed in fitting terms. Corps and other commanders are authorized to order the instant death of any soldier who fails in his duty this hour.

By command of Maj.-Gen. Meade: S. Williams, Assistant Adj.-Gen.

2 June 28.

3 June 30.

4 July 1.

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