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[445] that his men quite generally and shamefully misbehaved and were panic-stricken. It is plain that they were largely outnumbered, and that they saw and felt it; yet, with such dispositions, such handling on both sides, as rendered Fredericksburg a black disaster to us, there is no obvious reason for believing that Bragg's eyrie, so difficult of approach, might not have been triumphantly held.

Thomas returned directly from the battle-field to Chattanooga to expedite the movement of Granger's corps thence to the relief of Knoxville; while Sherman and Hooker pursued, at daylight,1 the routed columns of Bragg: the former, by way of Chickamauga Station; the latter by Greysville and Ringgold; Palmer, in his advance, having overtaken and charged by the way the Rebel rear-guard under Gist, breaking it and capturing 3 guns: our advance — badly delayed by the non-arrival of pontoons at the Chickamauga — bivouacking on the crest of the ridge east of that stream, and resuming the pursuit at dawn next morning;2 Osterhaus leading, followed by Geary, and he by Cruft; and going into Ringgold, 5 miles farther, close on the heels of the flying enemy.

Cleburne was now in command here — a man always hard to drive — and the gap in Taylor's or White Oak ridge, through which he was retreating, was one easy to hold and difficult to carry. Having guns advantageously posted, he refused to be hurried; while our men, flushed and exultant, could not be restrained from attacking, though our guns were still behind, having been detained at the crossing of the Chickamauga, where the enemy had burned the bridge behind him. A most gallant but rash effort was made to drive him out, wherein the 13th Illinois was honorably conspicuous. Two or three charges on our part were repulsed with loss; and it was not till afternoon, when some of our guns had come up, and the mouth of the gap had been flanked by our infantry crowning the ridge on either hand, that Cleburne was persuaded to continue his retreat; having inflicted on Hooker a loss of 65 killed and 367 wounded. The enemy left 130 killed and wounded on the field. Hooker remained at Ringgold till Dec. 1st; but was not allowed to advance: Sherman, with a large portion of our army, having been dispatched to the relief of Knoxville. Meantime, Gross's brigade visited the battle-field of Chickamauga and buried the moldering remains of many of our slain, who had been left by Bragg to lie as they fell. Osterhaus took post in the valley of the Chattanooga, while Geary and Cruft returned to their camps in Lookout valley.

Granger's corps turned back from the battle-field to Chattanooga,3 and was impelled directly thence to the relief of KnoxvilleSherman's corps likewise turning back4 from Greysville, he assuming command also over Granger, and moving rapidly by Charleston, Athens, and London, to Knoxville;5 making the last 84 miles over East Tennessee roads in three December days; thus compelling Longstreet to raise the siege and decamp; then turning at once and marching back to Chattanooga.

Grant states our losses in this series

1 Nov. 2<*>

2 Nov. 27.

3 Nov. 25-6.

4 Nov. 29.

5 Dec. 6.

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