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[521] cause of his color, or because of that of his regiment, appealed to Gov. Andrew; on whose representation and advocacy, backed likewise by Judge Bates's opinion as Attorney-General, he was ultimately paid in full. And, finally, it was by Congress enacted:1
That all persons of color who were free on the 19th day of April, 1861, and who have been enlisted and mustered into the military service of the United States, shall, from the time of their enlistment, be entitled to receive the pay, bounty, and clothing, allowed to such persons by the laws existing at the time of their enlistment.

When the 54th Massachusetts were ready, in May, 1863, to proceed to the seat of war in South Carolina, application was made in their behalf to the Chief of Police of New York for advice as to the propriety of taking that city in their route, and marching down Broadway. He responded that they could not be protected from insult and probable assault if they did so. They thereupon proceeded wholly by water to their destination. Within seven or eight months thereafter, two New York regiments of Blacks, raised by voluntary efforts mainly of the Loyal League, though discountenanced by Gov. Seymour, marched proudly down Broadway and embarked for the seat of War, amid the cheers of enthusiastic thousands, and without eliciting one discordant hiss.

The use of negroes, both free and slave, for belligerent purposes, on the side of the Rebellion, dates from a period anterior to the outbreak of actual hostilities. So early as Jan. 1st, 1861, a dispatch from Mr. R. R. Riordan, at Charleston, to lion. Percy Walker, at Mobile, exultingly proclaimed that--

Large gangs of negroes from plantations are at work on the redoubts, which are substantially made of sand-bags and coated with sleet-iron.

A Washington dispatch to The Evening Post (New York), about this time, set forth that--

A gentleman from Charleston says that everything there betokens active preparations for fight. Tile thousand negroes busy in building batteries, so far from inclining to insurrection, were grinning from ear to ear at tile prospect of shooting the Yankees.

The Charleston Mercury of Jan. 3d, said:

We learn that 150 able-bodied free colored men, of Charleston, yesterday offered their services gratuitously to the Governor, to hasten forward tile important work of throwing up redoubts wherever needed along our coast.

The Legislature of Tennessee, that negotiated that State out of the Union, by secret treaty with the Confederate Executive, passed2 an act authorizing the Governor (Isham G. Harris)--

to receive into the military service of the State all male free persons of color, between the ages of 15 and 50.

These Black soldiers were to receive $8 per month, with clothing and rations. The sheriff of each county was required, under the penalties of misdemeanor, to collect and report the names of all such persons; and it was further enacted--

That, in the event a sufficient number of free persons of color to meet the wants of the State shall not tender their services, the Governor is empowered, through the sheriffs of the different counties, to press such persons until the requisite number is obtained.

The Memphis Avalanche joyously proclaimed3 that--

A procession of several hundred stout negro men, members of the “domestic institution,”

1 June 15, 1864.

2 June 28, 1861.

3 Sept. 3, 1861.

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