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[556] one hearty blow at the Rebellion where lie could, with a decent regard for appearances, avoid it. Identified in principle and sympathy with the enemy on every point but that of Disunion, his powerful influence was thrown against the Emancipation policy of the Government; and, while lie was hail-fellow with the Secession aristocracy of the State, he was a sorrow and a scourge to the hearty, unconditional upholders of the Union. Hence, Unionism did not flourish under his rule; hence, the Rebel cavalry and guerrillas roamed almost at will over the State, never fearing aught, from his vigilance or his zeal for the National cause; and hence the forces under his command, though amply sufficient to have held all of the State north of the Washita, and repelled all gainsayers, were little better than wasted.

Gen. Rosecrans, having been appointed to the command of the Department of Missouri, found, on his arrival at St. Louis,1 the State agitated by a feud that threatened trouble. In addition to his force of perhaps 12,000 men — mainly State Militia, who were liable to service only in Missouri--there were, in the north-western counties, some 2,800 “provisionally enrolled militia” (by the Radicals called “Paw-Paws” ),2 who were “ Conservative” in their sympathies, either having been hitherto in the Rebel service, or belonging to Rebel families, or having otherwise evinced sympathy with the Rebels. These had been enrolled for neighborhood or special service — and were accused, by their Radical neighbors, of fighting Abolitionists more heartily than Rebels, and standing ready to join Price's army should it appear in the State the ensuing Summer, as was expected. Rosecrans looked into the matter, and sided generally with the Radicals; finding the great slaveholding counties on the river still infected with the Rebel spirit, and thousands eagerly awaiting the day when their party should again have the upper hand, and be able to avenge some of the indignities and wrongs they had suffered at the hands of the Unionists. Continuing his inquiries, and gradually insinuating his spies into the secret councils or lodges of the disloyal, he became satisfied that they were every — where organized, to the number of many thousands, as “The order of American Knights,” or “Sons of liberty,” whereof the Grand Commanders were Sterling Price in the South and C. L. Vallandigham in the North; and that an invasion of Missouri by Price, whom 23,000 members of this order were sworn to join on his appearance, was part of a general programme, which contemplated an invasion also of the North, and a formidable uprising of Rebel sympathizers in the North-West. He first learned through his spies in the Rebel lodges that Vallandigham was soon to return openly from Canada to Ohio, and be sent thence to the Democratic National Convention at Chicago. lie further discovered that arms were extensively coming into the State, and going into the hands of those suspected of Rebel sympathies; and he transmitted to Washington urgent representations that perils environed him, which required an augmentation of his force. Gen. Hunt was

1 Jan. 28, 1864.

2 From the paw-paw, a wild fruit whereon ‘bushwhackers’ were said to subsist.

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