- Phillips's raid to Grenada -- McPherson advances from Vicksburg -- Forrest's raid to Jackson -- W. T. Sherman's advance to Meridian -- Sovy Smith's failure -- Osband's fight at Yazoo City -- Palmer's advance to Dalton -- Forrest takes Union City -- repulsed by Hicks at Paducah -- assaults and carries Fort Pillow -- butchery after surrender -- Sturgis routed by Forrest at Guntown -- A. J. Smith worsts Forrest at Tupelo -- Forrest's raid into Memphis -- fights at Bean's Station, Charleston, Mossy creek, Dandridge and Maryville, East Tennessee -- Morgan's last raid into Kentucky -- Hobson's surrender -- Burbridge strikes Morgan at Mt. Sterling, and routs him near Cynthiana -- Morgan killed -- Burbridge beaten at Saltville, Va. -- attempt on Johnson's Island.
during the Autumn, Winter, and Spring of 1863-4, and the ensuing Summer, a great number of desultory, indecisive expeditions were impelled by one side or the other, which, though they exerted no considerable influence over the issue of the struggle, will be rapidly summed up, preliminary to the narration of Gen. Sherman's memorable Atlanta campaign. Several detachments of cavalry or mounted infantry, about 1,600 strong, sent out by Gen. Hurlbut, commanding in West Tennessee, under Lt.-Col. J. J. Phillips, 9th Illinois (infantry), Lt.-Col. W. R. M. Wallace, 4th Ill. cavalry, and Maj. D. E. Coon, 2d Iowa cavalry, raided through northern Mississippi to Grenada; where they captured and destroyed1 over 50 locomotives and about 500 cars of all kinds. At 9 1/2 P. M., Col. Winslow arrived from Gen. Sherman's army near Vicksburg, with orders not to destroy but save the rolling stock; and, he being the ranking officer, some effort was made to obey those orders; but fire had already done its work pretty effectually. Each party returned the way it came. They encountered little resistance, and their losses were inconsiderable. Gen. McPherson, with Tuttle's and Logan's divisions of infantry and Winslow's cavalry, 8,000 in all, was pushed out from Vicksburg2 nearly to Canton, skirmishing with and pushing  back Wirt Adams's cavalry and Cosby's, Logan's, and Whitman's brigades of infantry, until, finally, McPherson found himself confronted by a superior force, comprising Loring's division and other forces hurried down from Grenada and up from points so distant as Mobile ; when he retreated without a battle, via Clinton, to Vicksburg.3 Under cover of demonstrations at Colliersville and other points by Chalmers, Lee, and Richardson, against our lines covering the Memphis and Charleston railroad, Forrest, rest, with 4,000 mounted men, slipped through4 them near Salisbury, and advanced to Jackson, West Tennessee; see; which had ceased to be held in force on our side since the department headquarters had been transferred to Memphis. Drawing recruits from the sympathizers and supplies from the plantations and farms of all that region, he was soon emboldened to impel raiding parties in every direction ; while Brig.-Gen. A. L. Smith--directed against him from Columbus, Ky., by Hurlbut, with 6,000 men, of whom 2,000 were mounted — was brought to a full stop by the execrable badness of the roads, and finally retraced his steps to Columbus. lumbus. Hence, a cooperating force dispatched from Corinth on the south, consisting of Gen. Mower's brigade of infantry and Col. Mizener's cavalry, found nothing to cooperate with ; while the 7th Illinois cavalry, Col. Prince, which had moved out from Memphis to Bolivar, was compelled to fall back5 to Somerville; near which, it was surrounded next day by Richardson's mounted force--1,000 against 500--and routed with considerable loss. Forrest had by this time taken the alarm, as well he might — the forces at Hurlbut's command being three times his own — and had started southward to make his escape. Much of the country in this quarter being flat and swampy, and the rivers being bank-full, while Forrest was notoriously short of pontoons, he was obliged, after passing the Hatchie, to bear westward nearly to Memphis to find roads which even horsemen could traverse. Hurlbut was aware of this, and had ordered the burning of every bridge over Wolf river. His orders were obeyed every where but at the bridge near Lafayette; and it was for that bridge that Forrest, accordingly, struck ; crossing over his army and his plunder , including a large drove of cattle, and pushing rapidly southward. This movement was covered by a fresh feint by Richardson on Colliersville; so that Gen. Grierson, who was watching for Forrest at Lagrange, was misled ; and, when the pursuit was actually commenced, the scent was too cold. Grierson followed to Holly Springs, and then desisted; Forrest getting safely away with more men and better horses than he led into Tennessee. Gen. Sherman, with four divisions of Hurlbut's and McPherson's corps, and a brigade of cavalry under Winslow, low, moved6 eastward from Vicksburg through Jackson, crossing Pearl river on pontoons, and advancing through Brandon, Morton, Hillsboroa, and Decatur, across the Octibbeha and Tallahaha, to Meridian7--a railroad junction on the eastern  border of the State--destroying a vast amount of railroad property, bridges, trestles, track, locomotives, cars, &c., &c. Lt.-Gen. Polk, with French's and Loring's divisions and Lee's cavalry, fell back before our army ; skirmishing occasionally, but making no serious resistance; retreating at last behind the Tombigbee. Yet the expedition, though scarcely resisted, and doing vast damage to the Rebels, was essentially a failure, because too weak in cavalry. This deficiency was to have been supplied by a strong division sent by Hurlbut, under Gen. Win. Sovy Smith; but that officer, who was to have been here on the 10th, did not leave Memphis till the 11th, and failed to reach even West Point, nearly 100 miles north of Meridian ; whence he turned back,8 and made all speed to Memphis. Sherman was therefore obliged to retrace his steps; leaving Meridian on the 20th, and sending Winslow's cavalry so far north as Louisville to feel for Smith, but without success: so our army slowly returned unmolested to Canton.9 Its total loss during the expedition was but 171; while it brought away 400 prisoners, 1,000 White refugees, with 5,000 negroes, and returned in better condition for service than when it started. Gen. W. S. Smith, with about 7,000 men, including a brigade of infantry, had advanced by New Albany and Okolona nearly to West Point; when he found himself confronted by Forrest, Lee, and Chalmers, with more Rebels than he felt able to master; and, turning a very short corner, he made his way back to Memphis in the best time on record — his van reaching that city at 11 P. M. on the 25th. Attacked at Okolona,10 he had lost 5 guns in making good his escape; but it was claimed on his return that he had devoured or otherwise destroyed a large amount of Rebel property, mainly corn, and had lost but 200 men. Still, it is not recorded corded that he was ever again put in command of an important expedition. Simultaneously with his advance from Vicksburg, Sherman sent some gunboats and a detachment up the Yazoo against Yazoo City; which did not succeed in again capturing that city, but claimed to have done considerable damage, with a loss of but 50 men. Yazoo City was taken and occupied soon afterward by a Union force consisting of the 11th Illinois, Col. Schofield, 8th Louisiana (Black), Col. Coates, and 200 of the 1st Mississippi cavalry (Black). Col. Osband , who had dropped down the river from above, was here attacked11 by a far superior Rebel force under Ross and Richardson, and a desperate street-fight ensued, in which our loss was 130; that of the enemy reported by them at 50, and by our side at 300. They carried a good part of the town, but could not take the fort, and were finally repelled by reenforcements from below. The place was evacuated, by order from Vicksburg, soon afterward. Gen. Jo. Johnston, commanding in northern Georgia, having dispatched two divisions of Hardee's corps, under Stewart and Anderson, to the aid of Polk in Mississippi, Gen. Grant, still commanding at Chattanooga, sent forward12 the 14th  corps, under Gen. Palmer, to counteract this diversion. The divisions of Jeff. C. Davis, Johnson, and Baird, moved on the direct road to Dalton; Stanley's division, under Gen. Crufts, moving from Cleveland on our left, and forming a junction with Palmer just below Ringgold. The advance was resisted, but not seriously, at Tunnel Hill and at Rocky-Face ridge; whence Palmer pressed forward, against continually increasing resistance, to within two miles of Dalton ; where, hearing that the two Rebel divisions which were sent south had been brought back, and that all Johnston's (late Bragg's) army was on his hands, he fell back to Tunnel Hill, and ultimately to Ringgold;13 having lost 350 killed and wounded. The Rebel killed and wounded were but 200. Various inconsiderable collisions and raids on frontier posts occurred in southern Tennessee during the Winter and Spring ; in one of which, a steamboat on the Tennessee was captured and burnt by the enemy; but nothing of moment occurred until Forrest, at the head of 5,000 cavalry, advanced14 rapidly from northern Mississippi through West Tennessee, after a brief halt at Jackson to Union City, a fortified railroad junction near the Kentucky line, held by the 1lth Tenn. cavalry, Col. Hawkins, who tamely surrendered,15 after repelling an assault without loss. The spoils were 450 prisoners, 200 horses, and 500 small arms. Gen. Brayman, with a relieving force from Cairo, was but 6 miles distant when Hawkins gave up. Forrest now occupied Hickman without resistance, and next day appeared before Paducah at tho head of a division of his force which had moved thither directly from Jackson. He found here the 40th Illinois, Col. Hicks, 655 strong; who promptly withdrew into Fort Anderson, where he could be aided by the gunboats Piosta and Paw-Paw, Capt. Shirk. and whence he answered Forrest's summons with quiet firmness. Two assaults were made and repelled: the enemy at length occupying the town and firing from behind the houses at the garrison, but to no purpose. At 11 P. M., after burning a steamboat on the marine ways and some houses, Forrest drew off; our loss in the siege having been 14 killed and 46 wounded. Forrest reports his loss here and at Union City, “as far as known,” at 25;16 but names Col. A. P. Thompson and Lt.-Col. Lanhum, killed, and Col. Crosslin and Lt.-Col. Morton, “slightly wounded.” His loss was doubtless far heavier than he admitted. Buford, with a part of Pillow's men, next summoned17 Columbus, held by Col. Lawrence, 34th New Jersey; who refused to surrender. and could not be taken. Moving thence to Paducah, Buford summoned that post; but, a surrender being declined, he retired without assaulting. Forrest, with the larger portion of his command, had meantime fallen back into Tennessee, where he suddenly appeared18 before Fort Pillow, some 40 miles above Memphis. held by Maj. L. F. Booth, with a garrison of 557 men, 262 of whom were Blacks (6th U. S. heavy artillery);  the other battalion was White, under Maj. Bradford, 13th Tennessee cavalry. Maj. Booth had six gulls. The attack was made before sunrise, and the fighting was sharp until 9 A. M., when Maj. Booth was killed. Hitherto, our men had defended an outer line of intrenchments; but Major Bradford now drew the garrison back into the fort, situated on the high, steep, but partially timbered bluff of the Mississippi, with a ravine on either hand, also partially wooded. The gunboat New Era, Capt. Marshall, cooperated in tile defense; but to little purpose, because of the height of the bank, and because the Rebels, if shelled up one ravine, shifted their operations to the other. The fighting went on till considerably after noon, without material advantage to the enemy ; when the fire on both sides slackened to allow the guns to cool, while the New Era, nearly out of cartridges, moved back into the channel to clean her guns. Forrest improved the opportunity to send a summons, and soon after a second, demanding a surrender within 20 minutes; which Bradford declined. While these negotiations were in progress, the Rebels were stealing, down both ravines and gaining sheltered positions whence they could rush upon the fort whenever the signal should be given. Bradford's answer having been received, their rush was instantaneous, and in a moment the fort was in their hands; while the garrison, throwing down their arms, fled down the steep bank, trying to hide behind trees or logs, or skulk in bushes, or find comparative safety in the river; while the Rebels followed, butchering Black and White, soldiers and non-combatants, men, women, and children, with no more discrimination than humanity. Disabled men were made to stand up and be shot; others were burned with the tents wherein they had been nailed to the floor. This carnival of murder continued till dark and was even renewed the next morning. Major Bradford was not murdered till they had taken him as a prisoner several miles on their retreat to Mississippi. It was in vain that Forrest and his superior, Lt.-Gen. S. D. Lee, undertook to palliate this infernal atrocity, in defiance of their own record. Apart from the general threats (hitherto cited) of the Rebel authorities 19 that they would refuse to treat Black soldiers or their White officers as prisoners of war, Forrest, not three weeks before, had seen fit to summon Paducah in these terms:
Both Booth and Bradford having, been killed, the precise terms in which he summoned Fort Pillow do not appear ;20 but Buford's demand for the surrender of Columbus, the next day after the massacre, was  couched in this unequivocal language:
It is in vain, in the face of these documents, that Forrest — giving his loss at 20 killed ant 60 wounded, and claiming to have buried 228 of our men on the evening of the assault, beside “quite a number” next day — pretends that all these were killed in fair fight, or “by a destructive fire into the rear of the retreating and panic-stricken garrison ;” and that his superior Lee, thus pettifogs the case of the subordinate assassin:
The garrison was summoned in the usual manner, and its commanding officer assumed the responsibility of refusing to surrender, after having been informed by Gen. Forrest of his ability to take the fort, and of his fears as to what the result would be in case the demand was not complied with. The assault was made under a heavy fire, and with considerable loss to the attacking party. Your colors were never lowered, and your garrison never surrendered, but retreated under cover of a gunboat, with arms in their hands and constantly using them. This was true particularly of your colored troops, who had been firmly convinced by your teachings of the certainty of slaughter in case of capture. Even under these circumstances, many of your men — White and Black — were taken prisoners. I respectfully refer you to history for numerous cases of indiscriminate slaughter after successful assault, even under less aggravated circumstances. It is generally conceded, by all military precedent, that where the issue had been fairly presented and the ability displayed, fearful results are expected to follow a refusal to surrender. The case under consideration is almost an extreme one. You had a servile race armed against their masters, and in a country which had been desolated by almost unprecedented outrages. I assert that our officers, with all the circumstances against them, endeavored to prevent the effusion of blood; and, as an evidence of this, I refer you to the fact that both White and Colored prisoners were taken, and are now in our hands.All this can not weigh against the solemn oaths of scores of unimpeached witnesses, several of whom were themselves shot and left for dead long after the fighting had utterly ceased, when they were known to have surrendered, and several of whom testify that they saw prisoners thus butchered next day. And the evidence21 of Whites and Blacks proves that the murderers a hundred times declared that they shot the Blacks because they were “niggers,” and the Whites for “fighting with niggers.” If human testimony ever did or can establish any thing, then this is proved a case of deliberate, wholesale massacre of prisoners of war after they had surrendered — many of them long after — and for the naked reason that some of them were Black, and others were fighting in Black company. Forrest retreated rapidly from the scene of this achievement into Mississippi, and was not effectively pursued; there being no adequate cavalry force at hand for the purpose. Gen. S. D. Sturgis, with 12,000 men, was sent after22 Forrest; advancing from Memphis to Bolivar; but of course did not come near him: in fact, there was no chance of over-taking him after he had passed Wolf river and the forces guarding our lines in that quarter.  Some weeks later, a similar and in good part the same force, but including most of A. J. Smith's corps, now returned from the luckless Red river campaign, was sent from Memphis after Forrest, with instructions to push on till he was found and beaten, so as to prevent the transfer of a large part of his force to Jo. Johnston, then resisting Sherman in northern Georgia. Maj.-Gen. S. D. Sturgis--in spite of overwhelming proofs of his aggravated unfitness — was again intrusted with the command. His force consisted of 9,000 infantry and artillery, with 3,000 cavalry led by Gen. Grierson. Sturgis had advanced E. S. E. nearly 100 miles, through West Tennessee and northern Mississippi, meeting little opposition till near Guntown, on the Mobile railroad ; where Grierson's troopers found23 Forrest's cavalry, and pushed it vigorously back on his infantry, which was strongly posted on a semi-circular ridge or crest, with a naked slope in front, and a small creek at its foot, which could with difficulty be forded by infantry at a few points only. Word was sent back to the infantry, now 5 or 6 miles behind ; and, in an intensely hot day, they were pushed forward at double-quick to the scene of action, arriving thoroughly blown and incapable of exertion. As if this were not folly enough, the train of more than 200 wagons came rushing up with them, filling the road and impeding the movement of the troops; being hurried over the bridge and parked within sight and range of the enemy's lines. And now, without rest or proper formation, without an attempt to flank the enemy's strong position, or exhibit any common sense whatever, our exhausted infantry was sent in to the support of the already engaged cavalry; and both, of course, were speedily, thoroughly routed, and in most disorderly flight, over a bad, narrow road, with their train utterly lost at once, and no supplies, no place of refuge, no reenforcements, within three days march. The 1st cavalry brigade, Col. Geo. E. Waring, had been carved up to give an escort to the commanding General, and for various details, until not enough was left to present an imposing front; but the 2d brigade, Col. E. F. Winslow, was disposed as a rear-guard, and did what it could to cover the retreat of the hungry mob of fugitives on foot. After crossing a stream at Ripley,24 a stand was made and a sharp fight ensued, whereby the pursuit was checked, but with a considerable loss in prisoners on our side. Thenceforward, the pursuit was less eager; but it was continued nearly to Memphis: no attempt being made by Sturgis to reorganize his infantry or do any thing effective to mitigate the severity of the disaster. Our loss, mainly in captives, was variously stated at 3,000 to 4,000; but it is probable that the force that Sturgis brought back to Memphis, counting guns, wagons, and supplies (all lost), was not half so efficient as that with which he set out. Among our killed were Col. T. W. Humphrey, 95th, and Col. Geo. W. McKeag, 120th Illinois; the former for months acting Brigadier, and both excellent officers. Another expedition, also numbering 12,000, was promptly organized to wipe out the recollection of this most needless disgrace; Gen. A. J. Smith  being placed in command. It was fully equipped at Salisbury, 50 miles east of Memphis, advancing25 thence, skirmishing incessantly with Forrest's cavalry, to Tupelo, where the Rebel chief had concentrated his command, estimated by our officers at 14,000, and where he had decided to fight. Thrice his infantry assaulted26 our lines, and were each time repulsed with heavy loss; being finally driven from the field, leaving on it as many of his men killed or desperately wounded as the whole number of our killed, wounded, and missing. Gen. Smith made no farther advance; but there was a sharp, indecisive cavalry skirmish next day at Old Town creek; after which our army was withdrawn to the vicinity of Memphis ; whence Smith once more advanced,27 with 10,000 men, by Holly Springs to the Tallahatchie;28 but found. no enemy to fight, save a very small body of cavalry. Forrest's main body had been drawn off for service elsewhere. Smith remained in this region several days, and then returned to Memphis; whence he was soon called to the aid of Rosecrans in Missouri, as has already been stated. But while Smith was vainly hunting for Forrest in Mississippi, that chieftain reported himself in person at Memphis. Taking, 3,000 of his best-mounted men, Forrest flanked29 our army by night, and made a forced march to Memphis, which he charged into at dawn;30 making directly for the Gayoso house and other hotels, where his spies had assured him that Gens. Hurlbut, Washburne, and Buckland, were quartered. He failed to clutch either of them, but captured several staff and other officers, with soldiers enough to make a total of 300. Yet he failed to carry Irving prison, where the Rebel captives were in durance, made no attempt on the fort, and was driven out or ran out of the city after a stay of two hours, in which he had done considerable damage and appropriated some plunder. He lost some 200 men here and at Lane's, outside; where a smart skirmish occurred on his retreat, and Cols. Starr and Kendrick on our side were wounded. On the whole, the raid can hardly be deemed a success, and can not have realized the enemy's expectations, unless they were very moderate. As Hurlbut had at least 6,000 men in or about the city, it was not practicable to do more ; and Forrest left not a moment too soon. He made his way back to Mississippi unharmed. In East Tennessee, Gen. Longstreet's withdrawal into Virginia, after his failure at Knoxville, was at first closely pursued by our cavalry under Shackleford, on whom he turned31 at Bean's station, near Morristown, and a spirited fight ensued, with no decided result; but Shackleford does not appear to have hurried Longstreet thereafter. Wheeler, with 1,200 mounted men, struck32 a supply train from Chattanooga to Knoxville, guarded by Col. Siebert, near Charlestown, on the Hiwassee, andl had easily captured it — Siebert having but 100 men — when Col. Long, 4th Ohio cavalry, came to his aid with 150 more cavalry and Col. Laibold's 2d Missouri infantry; wherewith he quickly retook the train, and hurled the  raiders back on the road to Georgia, with a loss of 41 killed or wounded and 123 prisoners. We lost but 16. Gen. S. D. Sturgis, commanding our advance east of Knoxville, had a fight33 at Mossy creek, near Newmarket, with a Rebel force reported by him at 6,000, led by Martin Armstrong and John Morgan; wherein the Rebels were worsted. Our loss was 18 killed, 82 wounded. Sturgis reports the enemy's at 250 to 400; saying that he buried 22 of their dead and took 44 prisoners. Our advance eastward from Knoxville, having occupied34 Dandridge, was attacked there next day, and more determinedly at 3 P. M. the day after; holding the town till after dark, when our men fell back to Strawberry Plains. Gen. Vance, with 500 mounted men and 2 guns, crossed Smoky mountain from North Carolina into East Tennessee, making for Seviersville; near which place he, with 175 picked men, charged and captured a train of 17 Union wagons, making 26 prisoners. Attempting to return, however, he was surrounded35 on Cosby creek by the 4th Illinois cavalry, Maj. Davidson, who routed and captured him, with 100 of his men. Sturgis had several further collisions36 with the Rebel cavalry under Martin and Morgan, wherein he claimed the advantage, with a superior loss inflicted on the enemy ; but, as he began them near Dandridge and Newmarket, and left off at Maryville — some 30 miles farther back — it is not safe to credit his estimates of the respective losses. He claims to have taken 150 prisoners in a cavalry fight near Seviersville; another account says he lost 200 when the Rebels captured Strawberry Plains. It was supposed on our side that this Rebel advance presaged a fresh attempt on Knoxville by Longstreet; but that able General was doubtless masking the movement of the bulk of his forces into Virginia, whither he retired next month. Of course, that ended the pressure on our lines east of Knoxville. Morgan remained in East Tennessee--hiding, as well as he could, the paucity of his numbers — till the 1st of June ; when he started on another raid, via Pound gap, into Kentucky; evading Gen. Burbridge, who was in that quarter with a superior force, meditating an advance into south-western Virginia, in concert with the advance of Crook and Averill up the Kanawha. Morgan had but 2,500 followers, and these not so well mounted as they would have been two years earlier. Still, sending forward small parties to purvey as many good horses as possible, he moved, so swiftly as he might, by Paintville, Hazel Green, Owingsville, Flemingsburg, and Maysville, into and through the richest part of the State ; capturing Mount Sterling, Paris, Cynthiana, and Williamstown, burning trains, tearing up railroads, &c., almost without resistance. The most amazing feature of this raid was the capture of Gen. Hobson, with 1,600 well-armed Unionists, by Col. Giltner, one of Morgan's lieutenants, who had 300 only, by crowding him into a bend of the Licking, and then threatening him from the opposite bank so that he was glad to surrender. It is added that the Rebels were nearly out of ammunition. It is  to be hoped that they paroled their prisoners not to serve again during the War, unless on their side. Gen. Burbridge, who had promptly started on Morgan's track, had, by a forced march of 90 miles, struck37 him heavily at Mount Sterling; Morgan decamping at the close to continue his career. Part of his force entered Lexington at 2 next morning, burned the railroad depot, and left, heading for Frankfort and Georgetown. Part of Cynthiana was burned by another detachment. But, near that place, Burbridge fell38 on the Rebel raiders while at breakfast; killing and wounding 300 of them, capturing 400, beside 1,000 horses, and liberating some of Hobson's men. Hobson and staff were recaptured soon afterward. Our loss in this. conflict flict was but 150. Morgan fled to south-western Virginia with the wreck of his command, which was no longer a force. He had only gathered a small band, with which he occupied Greenville, East Tennessee, when he was surprised39 and killed by Gen. Gillem ; who, being apprised of his arrival, had made a forced march of 16 miles from Bull's gap to catch him. Burbridge was detained for weeks in Kentucky, reorganizing and remounting his overmarched force; when he resumed the movement which had been arrested by Morgan's raid. He struck directly for the salt-works at Saltville, near Abingdon; where he found himself confronted40 in strong force by Breckinridge, by whom he was beaten off, with a loss of 350 men, including Col. Mason, 11th Michigan, killed. He drew off during tile night after the conflict, alleging a lack of ammunition; but, as he left his wounded to the enemy, it would seem that the real difficulty was a superfluity rather than a scarcity at least of balls. Gen. Gillem, still posted near Bull's gap, finding a Rebel force, composed of the brigades of Vaughan and Palmer, in his rear at Morristown, suddenly attacked41 and routed them, with a loss on their side of 400 men and 4 guns. Two weeks later, Breckinridge in like manner surprised Gillem by a night attack ;42 routing him utterly, with the loss of his battery train, and most of his small arms, which his men threw away to expedite their flight. The darkness was intense, and Burbridge admits a loss of 220 men only. He took refuge in Knoxville, leaving Breckinridge transiently master of the situation. Johnson's island, Lake Erie, near Sandusky, Ohio, having been made a prison-camp, where several thousands of captive Rebels were usually confined, plots were laid by certain of the Rebel agents and refugees in Canada to liberate them. To this end, the unarmed steamboat Philo Parsons, on her way43 from Detroit to Sandusky, stopping at Malden, Canada, there took on board 20 passengers, sengers, who, at 6 P. M. proclaiming themselves Confederate soldiers, seized the boat, and with her captured the Island Queen ; soon scuttling the latter; then standing in for Sandusky, where they expected, in concert with secret allies in that city, to capture ture the U. S. gunboat Michigan ; but their signals were not answered, and they soon put off; running the boat on the Canada shore near Sandwich, and escaping.