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“ [114] more advanced point on the Orange and Alexandria Railway,” leaving but two regiments of cavalry to “occupy Winchester and thoroughly scour the country south of the rail-way and up the Shenandoah Valley.”

Gen. Banks had already thrown across the Potomac, at Harper's Ferry,1 the 28th Pennsylvania, Col. Geary, following himself,2 taking possession of Bolivar and Loudon Heights, Leesburg, Charlestown,3 and Martinsburg,4 and pushing back the Rebels to Winchester, which Stonewall Jackson evacuated5 without a struggle. Gen. Shields, commanding Lander's division,6 pursued Jackson to Newmarket,7 where he found him strongly posted and ready for action. He thereupon fell back rapidly to Winchester, pursued by Jackson's cavalry, under Turner Ashby. Gen. Banks, having dispatched one division toward Centerville,8 Jackson's spies assured him that Shields had but four regiments left, and might easily be captured or routed; so Ashby drove in our pickets and pressed hard upon Shields, who kept the larger part of his force concealed until Jackson was induced to advance in force and attack. In the slight skirmish which occurred,9 Gen. Shields was struck by a fragment of shell which broke his arm, and so injured his shoulder and side that he fought next day's battle in bed. Jackson had 10 regiments of infantry, all Virginians, but reports their aggregate strength at only 3,087 men, with 27 guns and 290 cavalry.10 Gen. Shields had 6,000 infantry, 750 cavalry, and 24 guns, well posted some three miles south of Winchester, and half a mile north of the little village of Kernstown, covering the three principal roads which enter Winchester from the south-east, south, and south-west.

Gen. Banks had remained with Shields until about 10 A. M.;11 when, a careful reconnoissance having discovered no enemy in front but Ashby's cavalry, he concluded that Jackson was too weak or too cautious to risk an attack, and departed for Washington via Harper's Ferry. Before noon, however, Shields was advised by Col. Kimball, on his left, that a Rebel battery had opened on his position, and appeared to be supported by a considerable force of infantry. Thereupon, Sullivan's brigade was pushed forward to support Kimball, and our artillery opened simultaneously with one or two more Rebel batteries; but at such distance as to do little harm. Soon, a still larger force of all arms was developed by Jackson on his right, and an effort made to turn our left, which was gallantly resisted and foiled by Sullivan's brigade, supporting Jenks's artillery. Jackson then reenforced heavily his left, sending two additional batteries and his reserve to support the movement; when Shields ordered up Tyler's brigade of 4 regiments to the support of Col. Kimball, commanding that wing, whereby the Rebels were outnumbered and hurled back upon their main body,

1 Feb. 24.

2 Feb. 26.

3 Feb. 28.

4 March 3.

5 March 11.

6 Gen. F. W. Lander, one of the bravest and best of our early commanders, had died March 2d, of congestion of tho brain, caused by hardship, exposure, and anxiety.

7 March 19.

8 March 22.

9 About sunset, March 22.

10 Pollard says the Confederate forces amounted to 6,000 men, with Capt. McLaughlin's battery and Col. Ashby's cavalry.

11 Sunday. March 23.

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