campaigns in which it served.
Without this mention of some one division or corps, the figures would, too often, remain meaningless and useless.
In designating the division, the name of its general is used in preference to its numerical title.
The soldiers were wont to so designate their commands, while historians invariably allude to a division by its commander's name.
As many of the divisions served under different generals, and were known successively by these commanders' names, it becomes difficult at times to select the name which might most properly designate the command.
In some cases the doubt was decided by using the name of the general under whom the regiment served longest.
Still, to do all this accurately would necessitate a knowledge of the corps histories which few, if any, possess.
It is hoped, however, that the name of the division will in each case assist in some degree to identify the regiment, to recall its history, and to throw some light upon the nature of its losses,--even though the name selected may not be the one best adapted to the purpose.
In giving the date of organization, the day of the month has been omitted, as in many commands the companies were mustered in at various dates; and, in each case, a large part of the men had enlisted and were in barracks a considerable time before the regiment effected its complete organization and muster — in as a regiment.
In some regiments there were men who had enlisted several weeks, often months, before their regiment was organized.
On the other hand, some of the regiments raised under the second call (1862) organized and left for the front within thirty days after the first man signed the roll.
The total enrollments are omitted for lack of space; but the number enrolled in three hundred of these regiments, the leading ones in point of loss, will be found in the various pages of Chapter X. The other regiments numbered about one thousand men each when organized, and received, on an average, 300 recruits.
Some of them took the field with only 800 men or thereabouts, and received but few recruits, while some others carried 1,800 on their rolls.
Where the number enrolled is not otherwise stated, the average infantry regiment may be considered as numbering 1,300, original members and recruits.
The cavalry regiments carried 1,800 men on their rolls as an average, and the heavy artillery commands about 2,200.
In the light batteries (six-gun batteries), 250 was a common enrollment.
By noting these facts the regimental losses in killed will be better understood, and an approximate idea of the percentage of loss will be obtained.
These figures are far above the plane of ordinary statistics.
They represent the measure of blood which an unflinching patriotism gave in exchange for the perpetuity of the Nation and the ransom of the Republic
note.--Many of the regiments marked in the following tables as having “reenlisted and served through the war,” preserved their organization by reason of a large number of recruits (who had unexpired terms to serve), rather than by the number of veterans who reenlisted.
Some of the three-years' regiments whose term expired in 1864, and were discharged and discontinued, contained in their ranks more reenlisted veterans than some commands which served through the war.