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[541] were “present for duty equipped.” The Army of the Potomac, according to the morning report of April 30, 1864, had an “aggregate present” of 127,471, not including the Ninth Corps.1

As regards the loss in the Union armies, the greatest battles of the war were:

Date. Battle. Killed. Wounded. Missing. Aggregate.
July 1-3, 1863. Gettysburg 3,070 14,497 5,434 23,001
May 8-18, 1864. Spotsylvania 2,725 13,416 2,258 18,399
May 5-7, 1864. Wilderness 2,246 12,037 3,383 17,666
Sept. 17, 1862. Antietam2 2,108 9,549 753 12,410
May 1-3, 1863. Chancellorsville 1,606 9,762 5,919 17,287
Sept. 19-20, 1863. Chickamauga 1,656 9,749 4,774 16,179
June 1-4, 1864. Cold Harbor 1,844 9,077 1,816 12,737
Dec. 11-14, 1862. Fredericksburg 1,284 9,600 1,769 12,653
Aug. 28-30, 1862. Manassas3 1,747 8,452 4,263 14,462
April 6-7, 1862. Shiloh 1,754 8,408 2,885 13,047
Dec. 31, 1862. Stone's River4 1,730 7,802 3,717 13,249
June 15-19, 1864. Petersburg (Assault) 1,688 8,513 1,185 11,386

As before, the missing includes the captured; but the number missing at Fredericksburg and Cold Harbor may be fairly added to the killed and wounded, as it represents men who fell in an unsuccessful assault.

In connection with these matters the question naturally arises,--Which were victories, and which were defeats?

To answer fairly and without prejudice would only invite bitter and senseless criticism from both sides. It is too soon to attempt any discussion of this much vexed topic. Still, there are certain conceded facts relative to this matter which one might venture to recall to mind. They may be premised with the military axioms,--that when an army retains possession of the battle field and buries its enemy's dead, it certainly cannot be considered as a defeated army; and that when an army abandons the field, either slowly or in rout, and leaves its dead and wounded in the hands of the enemy, it certainly should not claim a victory.

In the following named battles the Union armies remained in undisturbed possession of the field, the enemy leaving many of their wounded, and most of their dead unburied:

Rich Mountain, W. Va. Antietam, Md. Gettysburg, Pa.
Williamsburg, Va. South Mountain, Md. Magnolia Hills, Miss.
Crampton's Gap, Md. Kernstown, Va. Raymond, Miss.
Mill Springs, Ky. Baton Rouge, La. Champion's Hill, Miss.
Fort Donelson, Tenn. Iuka, Miss. Stone's River, Tenn.
Shiloh, Tenn. Corinth, Miss. Missionary Ridge, Tenn.
Pea Ridge, Ark. Chaplin Hills, Ky. Fort Stevens, D. C.
Roanoke Island, N. C. Resaca, Ga. Opequon, Va.
New Berne, N. C. Atlanta, Ga., July 21-22. Cedar Creek, Va.
Carter's Farm, Va. Piedmont, Va. Five Forks, Va.
Prairie Grove, Ark. Bentonville, N. C. Sailor's Creek, Va.
Nashville, Tenn. Tupelo, Miss.  

1 The Virginia Campaign of ‘64 and ‘65: Humphreys; pp. 408-411.

2 Not including South Mountain or Crampton's Gap.

3 Including Chantilly, Rappahannock, Bristoe Station, and Bull Run Bridge.

4 Including Knob Gap, and losses on January 1st and 2d. 1863.

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