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[410] aiding to form the lines of defence and attack. I commend him to your notice. Major Sanger's intelligence, quick perception and rapid execution, were of very great value to me, especially in bringing into line the batteries that cooperated so efficiently in our movements. Capts. McCoy and Dayton, Aids-de-Camp, were with me all the time, carrying orders, and acting with coolness, spirit, and courage. To Surgeon Hartshorn and Doctor L'Hommedieu, hundreds of wounded men are indebted for the kind and excellent treatment received on the field of battle, and in the various temporary hospitals created along the line of our operations. They worked day and night, and did not rest till all the wounded of our own troops as well as of the enemy were in safe and comfortable shelter. To Major Taylor, Chief of Artillery, I feel under deep obligations for his good sense and judgment in managing the batteries on which so much depended. I enclose his report, and endorse his recommendations. The cavalry of my command kept to the rear, and took little part in the action, but it would have been madness to have exposed horses to the musketry fire under which we were compelled to remain, from Sunday at eight A. M., till Monday at four P. M. Capt. Kossack, of the Engineers, was with me all the time and was of great assistance. I enclose his sketch of the battle-field, which is the best I have seen and which will enable you to see the various positions occupied by my division, as well as of the others that participated in the battle.

I will also send in during the day the detailed reports of my brigadiers and colonels, and will endorse them with such remarks as I deem proper.

I am, etc., your obedient servant,

Report of General Buell.

headquarters army of the Ohio, field of Shiloh, April 15, 1862.
Capt. N. H. McLain, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the Mississippi:
sir: The rear divisions of the army under my command, which had been delayed a considerable time in rebuilding the Duck River bridge, left Columbia on the second inst. I left the evening of that day, and arrived at Savannah on the evening of the fifth. Gen. Nelson, with his division, which formed the advance, arrived the same day. The other divisions marched with intervals of about six miles. On the morning of the sixth, firing of musketry and cannon was heard in the direction of this place. Apprehending that a serious engagement had commenced, I went to Gen. Grant's headquarters, to get information as to the means of reaching the battle-field with the division that had arrived. At the same time orders were despatched to the divisions in rear to leave their trains, and push forward by forced marches. I learned that Gen. Grant had just started, leaving orders for Gen. Nelson to march to the river, opposite Pittsburgh Landing, to be ferried across. An examination of the roads up the river, discovered it to be impracticable for artillery, and Gen. Nelson was directed to leave his, to be carried forward by steamers.

The impression existed at Savannah that the firing was merely an affair of outposts, the same thing having occurred for two or three previous days; but as it continued, I determined to go to the scene of action, and accordingly started with my Chief-of-Staff; Col. Fry, on a steamer, which I ordered to get under steam. As we proceeded up the river, groups of soldiers were seen upon the west bank, and it soon became evident that they were stragglers from the engaged army. The groups increased in size and frequency, until, as we approached the Landing, they numbered whole companies, and almost regiments; and at the Landing the banks swarmed with a confused mass of men of various regiments. There could not have been less than four thousand or five thousand. Late in the day it became much greater. Finding Gen. Grant at the Landing, I requested him to send steamers to Savannah to bring up General Crittenden's division, which had arrived during the morning, and then went ashore with him. The throng of disorganized and demoralized troops increased continually by fresh fugitives from the battle, which steadily drew nearer the Landing, and with these were intermingled great numbers of teams, all striving to get as near as possible to the river. With few exceptions, all efforts to form the troops, and move them forward to the fight, utterly failed. In the mean time the enemy had made such progress against our troops, that his artillery and musketry began to play into the vital spot of the position, and some persons were killed on the bank, at the very Landing. Gen. Nelson arrived with Col. Ammen's brigade at this opportune moment. It was immediately posted to meet the attack at that point, and with a battery of artillery, which happened to be on the ground, and was brought into action, opened, fire on the enemy, and repulsed him. The action of the gunboats also contributed very much to that result. The attack at that point was not renewed. Night having come on, the firing ceased on both sides. In the mean time the remainder of Gen. Nelson's division crossed, and Gen. Crittenden's arrived from Savannah by steamers. After examining the ground — as well as was possible at night — in front of the line on which Gen. Grant's troops had formed, and as far to the right as Gen. Sherman's division, I directed Nelson's and Crittenden's divisions to form in front of that line, and move forward as soon as it was light in the morning. During the night and early the following morning, Captain Bartlett's Ohio battery, Capts. Mendenhall and Terrill's regular batteries arrived. General McCook, by a forced march, arrived at Savannah during the night of the sixth, and reached the field of battle early in the morning of the seventh. I knew that the other divisions could not arrive in time for the action that day.

The patch of country on which the battles of the sixth and seventh were fought, is called Shiloh, from the little church of that name, which stands in its midst. It consists of an undulating

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