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[411] table-land, elevated some eighty or one hundred feet above the road-bottom. Along the Tennessee River, to the east, it breaks into abrupt ravines, and toward the south, runs along Lick Creek, which empties into Tennessee River, some three miles above Pittsburgh Landing, into a range of hills of some height, whose slopes are gradual toward the battle-field, and somewhat abrupt toward Lick Creek. Owl Creek, rising near the source of Lick Creek, flows to the north-east, around the battle-field, into Snake Creek, which empties into Tennessee River, some miles below Lick Creek. The drainage is mainly from Lick Creek ridge and the table-land into Owl Creek. Coming from Corinth, the principal road crosses Lick Creek at two points, some twelve miles from its mouth, and separates into three or four principal branches, which enter the table-land from the south, at a distance of about a mile apart. Generally the face of the country is covered with woods, through which troops can pass without great difficulty, though occasionally the undergrowth is dense. Small farms and cultivated fields, of from seventy to eighty acres, occur here and there, but as a general thing the country is a forest. My entire ignorance of the various roads, and of the character of the country at the time, rendered it impossible to anticipate the probable dispositions of the enemy, and the woods were always sufficient to screen his preparatory movements from observation.

Soon after five o'clock on the morning of the seventh, Gen. Nelson's and Gen. Crittenden's divisions, the only ones yet arrived on the ground, moved promptly forward to meet the enemy. Nelson's division, marching in line of battle, soon came upon his pickets, drove them in, and at about six o'clock received the fire of his artillery. The division was here halted, then Mendenhall's battery brought into action, to reply while Crittenden's division was being put into position on the right of Nelson's. Bartlett's battery was posted in the centre of Crittenden's division, in a commanding position, opposite which the enemy was discovered to be in force. By this time McCook's division arrived on the ground, and was immediately formed on the right of Crittenden's. Skirmishers were thrown to the front, and a strong body of them to guard our left flank, which, though somewhat protected by rough grounds, it was supposed the enemy might attempt to turn, and in fact did, but was repulsed with great loss. Each brigade furnished its own reserve, and in addition Boyle's brigade of Crittenden's division, though it formed at first in the line, was kept somewhat back when the line advanced, to be used as occasion might require. I found upon the ground parts of about two regiments, perhaps one thousand men, and subsequently a similar fragment came up of General Grant's force. The first I directed to act with Gen. McCook's attack, and the second one was similarly employed on the left. I sent other straggling troops of Gen. Grant's force immediately on Gen. McCook's right, as some firing had already commenced there. I had no direct knowledge of the disposition of the remainder of Gen. Grant's force, nor is it my province to speak of them. I regret that I am unable to name those that came under my direction in the way I had stated, for they rendered willing and efficient service during the day.

The force under my command occupied a line of about a mile and a half. In front of Nelson's division was an open field, partially screened to his right by a skirt of woods, which extended through the enemy's line, with a thick undergrowth in front of the left brigade of Crittenden's division; then an open field in front of Crittenden's right and McCook's left, and in front of McCook's right, woods again with a dense undergrowth. The ground, mainly level in front of Nelson's, formed a hollow in front of Crittenden's, and fell into a small creek, which empties into Owl Creek, in front of McCook's. What I afterward learned was the Hamburgh road, which crosses Lick Creek a mile from its mouth, passed perpendicularly through the line of battle near Nelson's left. On a line slightly oblique to us, and beyond the open field, the enemy was formed, with a battery in front of Nelson's left; a battery commanding the woods in front of Crittenden's left, and flanking the field in front of Nelson; a battery commanding the same woods and the field in front of Crittenden's right and McCook's left, and a battery in front of McCook's right. A short distance in rear of the enemy's left, on high open ground, were the encampments of McClernand's and Sherman's divisions, which the enemy held.

While my troops were getting into position on the right, the artillery fire was kept up between Mendenhall's battery and the enemy's second battery with some effect. Bartlett's battery, put in position before the enemy's third battery, opened fire on that part of the line, and when, very soon after, our line advanced, with strong bodies of skirmishers in front, the action became general, and continued with severity during the greater part of the day, and until the enemy was driven from the field.

The obliquity of our line upon the left being thrown forward, brought Nelson's division first into action, and it became very hotly engaged at an early hour. A charge of the Nineteenth brigade, from Nelson's right, by its commander, Col. Hazen, reached the enemy's second battery, but the brigade sustained a heavy loss by a cross fire of the enemy's batteries, and was unable to maintain its advantage against the heavy infantry force that came forward to oppose it. The enemy recovered the battery, and followed up his advantage by throwing a heavy force of infantry into the woods in front of Crittenden's left. The left brigade of that division, Col. W. S. Smith, commanding, advanced into the woods, repulsed the enemy handsomely, and took several prisoners. In the mean time, Capt. Terrell's battery, which had just landed, reached the field, and was advanced into action near the left of Nelson's division, which was very heavily pressed by the great numbers of the enemy. It belonged

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