Question. Can you tell the proportion of the men who have died to the number that have lately arrived from Richmond
Answer. If time is allowed me, I can send the statement to the Committee
Question. Do so, if you please.
Answer. I will do so. I will say that some of these men who have stated they were well treated, I have found out to have been very bad to the Union
Question. Are those men you have just mentioned as having been well treated an exception to the general rule?
Answer. Yes, sir; a very striking exception.
Question. Have you ever been in charge of confederate prisoners?
Answer. Yes, sir.
Question. State the course of treatment of our authorities toward them.
Answer. We have never made the slightest difference between our own men and confederate prisoners when their sick and wounded have been in our hands.
Question. You have treated both the same?
Answer. Yes, sir. When any one of their men, wounded or sick, has been a patient in our hands, we have treated him the same as we do our own men.
By Mr. Julian
Question. Have their sick and wounded been kept separate from ours, or have they been kept together?
Answer. In Washington
they were kept separate, but at Antietam
, where an hospital was established, in order to have the patients treated where they were injured, the Union
and confederate patients were treated together and alike.
almost every body is secesh.
Well, the most I can say is, that some of the secesh ladies there came to me and stated that they were very glad to see that we treated their men the same as ours.
Question. It is sometimes said, by the rebel newspapers, at least, that they have given the same rations to our prisoners that they give to their own soldiers.
Now, I want to ask you, as a medical man, if it is possible, with the amount of food that our prisoners have had, for men to retain their health and vigor, and perform active service in the field?
Answer. I do not believe that the rebels could fight as well, or make such marches as they have done, upon such small rations as our prisoners have received.
Question. Can the health of men be preserved upon such rations as they have given our prisoners?
Answer. No, sir; it cannot, not only on account of quantity, but quality.
I have seen some specimens of their rations brought here by our paroled prisoners, and I know what they are.
Question. As a general rule, what is the effect of treating men in that way?
Answer. Just what we hear every day — men dying from starvation and debility.
Many of these men — mostly all the wounded men — are suffering from hospital gangrene, which is the result of not having their wounds dressed in time, and having too many crowded in the same apartment.
We have had men here whose wounds have been so long neglected that they have had maggots in them by the hundred.
Question. What is your position in the United States
Answer. Acting Assistant Surgeon
Question. How long have you been stationed here?
Answer. Since the twenty-seventh of July, 1863.
Question. Will you state what has been the condition of our paroled prisoners, received here from the rebels, during the time you have been stationed here?
Answer. As a general thing, they have been very much debilitated, emaciated, and suffering from disease, such as diarrhea, scurvy, lung diseases, etc.
Question. In your opinion, as a physician, by what have these diseases been produced?
Answer. By exposure and want of proper food, I think.
Question. Are you able to form any opinion, from the condition of these men, as to the quantity and quality of food which they have received?
Answer. From their appearance and condition, I judge the quality must have been very bad, and the quantity very small, not sufficient to preserve the health.
Question. We have seen and examined several patients here this morning, who are but mere skeletons.
They have stated to us, as you are aware, that their suffering arose wholly from the want of proper food and clothing.
In your opinion, as a medical man, are these statements true?
Answer. I believe that these statements are correct.
We have had some men who look very well.
How they managed to preserve their health I am not able to say; but, as a general thing, the men we receive here are very much debilitated, apparently from exposure, and want of sufficient food to keep up life and health.
Question. Are you acquainted with the case of Howard Leedom
Answer. Yes, sir; I am.
Question. Will you state about that case?
Answer. I did not see the patient until recently, when he was placed in my charge.
I found him with all his toes gone from one foot in consequence of exposure.
He has suffered from pneumonia also, produced by exposure, and there have been very many cases of pneumonia here, produced by the same cause, many of whom have died; and we have held post-mortem examinations upon many of them, and found ulcers upon their intestines, some of them being ulcerated the whole length of their bowels.