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[303] the killing of a pig or chicken; nor did they offer any insult to a citizen or tamper with a negro, but were busily engaged in endeavoring to complete the stockade. And in saying this much about them, I am certain the statement would be indorsed by every citizen of the town, without distinction of party.

On Thursday, the twenty-fifth, rumors became rife that Morgan was advancing. On Friday, the twenty-sixth, it was reduced to a certainty. On the morning of Saturday, the twenty-seventh, Morgan's pickets were discovered on the Nashville turnpike road, at about one mile distance. At about eight or nine o'clock A. M. Col. Smith arrived in town with six companies of the Ninety-first, and hasty preparations were made for defence with muskets only. One company, Capt. Fosha's, was placed in the unfinished stockade, and Col. Smith placed his men under the embankment of the railroad, intending to fight from that position. The Colonel had so recently arrived that he was ignorant of the amount of Morgan's forces, and, believing that it was only a guerrilla band of some few hundreds, sent out a flag demanding a surrender; but Morgan, being at the head of a force variously estimated between five thousand and ten thousand, with about ten pieces of artillery, treated the demand with contempt, and soon had the town entirely surrounded, which rendered Col. Smith's position untenable, and after firing a few rounds from the stockade and embankment, fell back into town and placed the men in the second story of the houses around the public square. This occurred after Morgan's batteries had opened from the top of the hills on the south part of the town, above the cemetery, at about five hundred yards of the court-house, completely commanding the whole town. His firing commenced without any warning to the non-combatants, including women and children, to leave. Some of Morgan's friends contend that he did send warning for women and children to leave in forty-five minutes; but, if there was such a respite offered, it is certain that no man, woman, or child heard of it; and none could leave, for some attempted to leave town on the west and north side, but were fired on, and driven back by Morgan's men. And before half the time pretended to be given had elapsed, the artillery was banging away and fired one hundred and seven shots of shell and ball into the town, which lay at his mercy — almost under his feet — and, the only wonder is, that the town was not battered down.

Thirty-six shots took effect on buildings, to wit: Mrs. Mulholland's, on the opposite side of the hill, six shots; A. M. Brown's, three shots; Elias Graham's tavern, three shots; C. F. Rowal's, one shot; S. Haycraft's Riddle House, occupied by G. Gunter, four shots; Dr. Anderson's third story, one shot, killing two men; James D. Cully's frame, two shots; Mrs. Leadan's, two shots; Eagle House, seven shots, killing two men; Mr. George L. Miles's house, three shots; Masonic Hall, one shot; Baptist church, one shot, being a shell, went through a king-post, letting down a girder, and exploding in the attic. The Catholic church, one shot. Nearly all the shot perforated the walls and went through the buildings, many other balls falling in gardens, yards, and streets. Colonel Smith's command fired a great many rounds of musketry, and evinced a commendable disposition to keep up the unequal and hopeless combat. A ball passed through the room where Col. Smith was posted, killing a man and striking the Colonel with a splinter in the face, nearly felling him.

The officers being separated, not affording an opportunity for concert of action, after nearly two hours fighting, some officer without consulting Colonel Smith gave the signal of a surrender. The Colonel was exceedingly mortified, but it was no doubt the most prudent course. It is true that if they had held out fifteen or twenty minutes longer, Morgan's forces to a considerable extent would have occupied the public square, in which case five hundred of his men could have been killed, but it would have resulted in their final defeat and perhaps the complete extermination of the Federal forces, the burning and destruction of the town, and most likely the death of many women and children. It so happened that not a solitary citizen was killed or wounded, many of them having taken refuge in the basements or cellars, or rooms most remote from assailable points. Our whole force engaged was under five hundred. The officers and men were all paroled.

As soon as Morgan got possession, the destruction commenced, first by burning the railroad bridges, then the depot, the stockade; also parts of buildings which had been converted into a kind of fortress; nearly three thousand five hundred bushels of wheat were consumed in the depot, all belonging to Southern rights men. Then every horse in town worth picking up, indeed, the horse-taking extended many miles round. In the latter, Morgan was impartial, for Southern rights men suffered as much if not more than Union men. Then off came every soldier's over-coat, not sparing officers', boots pulled off men's feet. Captain Hackey's fine boots were taken off by a fellow who said he wanted them for General Morgan.

John Friend, Aunt Beck's clerk at the Hill Hotel, found a soldier with his Sunday-go-to-meeting suit on, and he kept it. Coats, shirts, shoes, hats, and all went indiscriminately in some localities. Some stores were literally used up, doors broken open, and the goods taken ad libitum.

Heelburn, a Dutch merchant, had, according to his account, goods taken to the amount of three thousand five hundred dollars, for which not one cent was paid, notwithstanding several Southern rights men appealed to Morgan in his behalf.

They also took from Jacob Kaufman, another Dutch merchant, about two thousand five hundred dollars' worth of goods, for which they refused to pay a cent. From M. N. Parmele they took one thousand dollars' worth. Mr. Parmele appealed to Morgan in person. He asked Parmele if he was a Union man. He replied that he was. Morgan replied that he could do nothing


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