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[277] fierce and sanguinary conflict ensued, which continued until about nine o'clock P. M., when the enemy slowly fell back, and left us in possession of the field. The loss on both sides was heavy, and among our wounded was Major-General Ewell and Brigadier-General Taliaferro, the former severely. The next morning, the twenty-ninth, the enemy had taken a position to interpose his army between General Jackson and Alexandria, and about ten A. M., opened with artillery upon the right of Jackson's line. The troops of the latter were disposed in rear of Groveton, along the line of the unfinished branch of the Manassas Gap Railroad, and extended from a point a short distance west of the turnpike toward Sudley Mill — Jackson's division, under Brigadier-General Starke, being on the right; Ewell's, under General Lawton, in the centre; and A. P. Hill on the left. The Federal army was evidently concentrating upon Jackson, with the design of overwhelming him before the arrival of Longstreet. The latter officer left his position, opposite Warrenton Springs, on the twenty-sixth, being relieved by General R. H. Anderson's division, and marched to join Jackson. He crossed at Kinson's Mill in the afternoon, and encamped near Orlean that night. The next day he reached the White Plains, his march being retarded by the want of cavalry to ascertain the meaning of certain movements of the enemy from the direction of Warrenton, which seemed to menace the right flank of his column.

On the twenty-eighth, arriving at Thoroughfare Gap, he found the enemy prepared to dispute his progress. General D. R. Jones's division being ordered to force the passage of the mountain, quickly dislodged the enemy's sharp-shooters from the trees and rocks, and advanced into the gorge. The enemy held the eastern extremity of the pass in large force, and directed a heavy fire of artillery upon the road leading through it, and upon the sides of the mountain. The ground occupied by Jones afforded no opportunity for the employment of artillery. Hood, with two brigades, and Wilcox, with three, were ordered to turn the enemy's right; the former moving over the mountain by a narrow path to the left of the pass, and the latter further to the north, by Hopewell Gap. Before these troops reached their destination, the enemy advanced and attacked Jones's left, under Brigadier-General G. T. Anderson. Being vigorously repulsed, he withdrew to his position at the eastern end of the gap, from which he kept up an active fire of artillery until dark, and then retreated. Generals Jones and Wilcox bivouacked that night east of the mountain; and on the morning of the twenty-ninth the whole command resumed the march, the sound of cannon at Manassas announcing that Jackson was already engaged. Longstreet entered the turnpike near Gainesville, and moving down toward Groveton, the head of his column came upon the field in rear of the enemy's left, which had already opened with artillery upon Jackson's right as previously described. He immediately placed some of his batteries in position, but before he could complete his dispositions to attack, the enemy withdrew; not, however, without loss from our artillery. Longstreet took possession on the right of Jack son; Hood's two brigades, supported by Evans, being deployed across the turnpike, and at right angles to it. These troops were supported on the left by three brigades under General Wilcox, and by a like force on the right under General Kemper. D. R. Jones's division formed the extreme right of the line, resting on the Manassas Gap Railroad. The cavalry guarded our right and left flanks; that on the right being under General Stuart in person. After the arrival of Longstreet, the enemy changed his position and began to concentrate opposite Jackson's left, opening a brisk artillery fire, which was responded to with effect by some of General A. P. Hill's batteries. Colonel Walton placed a part of his artillery upon a commanding position, between General Jackson and Longstreet, by order of the latter, and engaged the enemy vigorously for several hours. Soon afterward General Stuart reported the approach of a large force from the direction of Bristoe Station, threatening Longstreet's right. The brigades under General Wilcox were sent to reenforce General Jones, but no serious attack was made, and after firing a few shots the enemy withdrew. While this demonstration was being made on our right, a large force advanced to assail the left of Jackson's position occupied by the division of General A. P. Hill. The attack was received by his troops with their accustomed steadiness, and the battle raged with great fury. The enemy was repeatedly repulsed, but again pressed on the attack with fresh troops. Once he succeeded in penetrating an interval between General Gregg's brigade, on the extreme left, and that of General Thomas, but was quickly driven back with great slaughter by the Fourteenth South-Carolina regiment, then in reserve, and the Forty-ninth Georgia, of Thomas's brigade. The contest was close and obstinate, the combatants sometimes delivered their fire at ten paces. General Gregg, who was most exposed, was reenforced by Hay's brigade under Colonel Forno, and successfully and gallantly resisted the attack of the enemy, until the ammunition of his brigade being exhausted, and all its field-officers but two, killed or wounded, it was relieved, after several hours of severe fighting, by Early's brigade and the Eighth Louisiana regiment. General Early drove the enemy back with heavy loss, and pursued about two hundred yards beyond the line of battle, when he was recalled to the position on the railroad where Thomas, Pender, and Archer had firmly held their ground against every attack. While the battle was raging on Jackson's left, General Longstreet ordered Hood and Evans to advance, but before the order could be obeyed Hood was himself attacked, and his command at once became warmly engaged. General Wilcox was recalled from the right and ordered to advance on Hood's left; and one of Kemper's brigades, under Colonel Hunton, moved forward on his right. The enemy was repulsed by Hood

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