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[666] had done all in your power, and that it would be a useless waste of life to bring the troops into the city. He also urged you, by all means, to retire from the city for your own safety, and subsequently asked me to persuade you to leave as soon as possible, as he would be hung if the United States authorities found you were at his house.

Very respectfully,

Your obedient servant,

L. L. James, Volunteer Aide-de-Camp.

(C.)

headquarters Department no. 1, New Orleans.
Hon. John T. Monroe, Mayor of New Orleans:
Sir: When the enemy, having succeeded in passing our defences on the river with his fleet, anchored abreast the city, it was apparent that the infantry troops under my command could offer no effectual resistance, and their presence would only serve as a pretext and justification for them to open their guns upon a city crowded with women and children, whom it was impossible to remove. Under these circumstances, I determined at once to withdraw my troops, and leave it to the citizens themselves to agree upon the course of action to be pursued, in relation to the welfare of their families and property. I now beg leave to say, that if it is the determination of the people of the city to hold it at any and all hazards, I will return with my troops, and share the danger with them. That my return will be followed by bombardment, is, in my opinion, certain; but if that is the conclusion come to, I will afford all the protection in my power.

Very respectfully,

M. Lovell, Major-General, commanding.

(D.)

camp Moore, April 30, 1862.
General M. Lovell, Commanding Department No. 1:
General: At your request, upon my return from Forts Jackson and St. Philip, I accompanied you to call, upon Commodore Whittle, of the navy, at his headquarters in New Orleans, for the purpose of getting that officer, if possible, to place the iron-clad gunboat Louisiana in a position below Forts Jackson and St. Philip, from which she could enfilade the position of the enemy's mortar fleet, and drive them from it, thereby relieving the forts, for a time at least, from the heavy bombardment then going on, which would allow Brigadier-General Duncan to make such repairs as were necessary, and what was equally necessary, give the garrison some rest. The position designated for the vessel to be placed in was in an eddy upon the Fort St. Philip side of the river, and under the protection of the guns of both forts, and entirely out of the line of the bombardment; and it would require a change of position of the mortar fleet to enable them to strike the vessel with shell, if she could have been struck at all. All these facts were fully explained by yourself to Commodore Whittle, and he was requested by you, by all means, to place the vessel in said position, even if she was lost, as the maintaining the position then held by your troops in the forts, without this assistance, was merely a question of time. To this earnest appeal upon your part, Commodore Whittle telegraphed to Commander Mitchell, of the fleet stationed just above the forts, “to strain a point, if in his judgment it was necessary, to comply with your request, and place the Louisiana in the position before spoken of.” As the result shows, the request of Commodore Whittle to Commander Mitchell was not complied with.

I make this statement voluntarily, in order that, if ever the question of the defences of New Orleans should arise, that you can have every evidence to show that it was not certainly the want of proper exertions on the part of the land forces which caused the fall of New Orleans..

Very respectfully,

Your obedient servant,

L. L. James, Volunteer Aide-de-Camp.


Report of Brigadier-General J. K. Duncan.

New Orleans, La., April 30, 1862.
Major J. G. Pickett, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department No. 1, Camp Moore, La.:
I have the honor to submit the following report of the bombardment of Forts Jackson and St. Philip, La., from the sixteenth to the twenty-fourth of April, 1862:

About the twenty-seventh of March I was informed by Lieutenant-Colonel E. Higgins, commanding Forts Jackson and St. Philip, composing a part of the coast defences under my command, that the enemy's fleet was crossing the bars, and entering the Mississippi river in force. In consequence, I repaired at once to that post, to assume the general command of the threatened attack upon New Orleans, which I had always anticipated would be made from that quarter. Upon my arrival, I found that Fort Jackson was suffering severely from transpiration and backwater, occasioned by the excessive rise in the river, and the continued prevalence of strong easterly winds. Notwithstanding every effort which could be made, the water kept daily increasing upon us, partly owing to the sinking of the entire site, and to the natural lowness of the country around it, until the parade-plain and casemates were very generally submerged to the depth of from three to eighteen inches. It was with the utmost difficulty, and only then by isolating the magazines, and by pumping day and night, that the water could be kept out of them.

As the officers and men were all obliged to live in these open and submerged casemates, they were greatly exposed to discomfort. and


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