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[80] and rear of the army as it withdrew within the lines around Richmond. Toward the middle of June was effected that brilliant movement which so distinctly illustrates the daring and skill of Stuart and the unfailing endurance of his men. He passed around the entire Federal army, obtaining the information he sought and returning to Camp with the substantial rewards of his prowess.

During the Seven Days battles around Richmond, but little opportunity was afforded for cavalry operations beyond the ordinary work of obtaining information on the front and flanks, but in the latter part of June, Stuart reached White House, where a Federal gunboat had been seen on the Pamunkey. Seventy-five dismounted cavalrymen, armed with carbines and deployed as skirmishers, approached the vessel, whereupon a body of sharpshooters was landed from the gunboat and advanced to meet them. A single howitzer of the Stuart horse artillery opened on the war-ship from a position on which her guns could not be brought to bear. The shells from the howitzer greatly distressed her, and withdrawing her sharpshooters, she disappeared down the river.

On no occasion was the audacity of Stuart and the temper of his men more severely tested than in October, when there was carried through the movement to Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, which was reached on the 10th. The advance was bold and perilous enough, but it was tame in comparison with the return. The Union forces had been thoroughly aroused, and dispositions had been ordered, intended and calculated to head off the invaders before they could recross the Potomac. Leaving Chambersburg, a march of nearly thirty-two miles brought Stuart and his men to Emmittsburg at about seven o'clock on the evening of the 11th. One hour before their arrival, four companies of the Sixth Pennsylvania Cavalry had passed through the town on their way to Gettysburg. General Pleasonton with eight hundred men, Colonel Rush with his regiment, and General Stoneman with his command were scouring

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