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Chesapeake Bay, described in another chapter, and which were between small naval forces and land batteries, no regular vessel of the United States navy had discharged a gun at a floating foe until on July 28, 1861, the Confederate privateer Petrel, formerly the United States revenue cutter Aiken, was sunk by the sailing frigate St. Lawrence after receiving two shots broadside. Out of her crew of forty, thirty-six were rescued by the St. Lawrence's boats.

To the Federal navy belongs the honor of achieving the first signal success along the coast, in the bombardment and capture of Forts Hatteras and Clark at Hatteras Inlet, on the 28th and 29th of August, 1861. From Hatteras Inlet offensive operations could be carried on by means of light-draft vessels along the entire coast of North Carolina. The inlet was the key to Albemarle Sound, and was, besides, a good depot for outfitting and coaling, and a refuge, owing to its sheltered position, from the fierce winter storms that raged along the shore.

In the Gulf, there had been some skirmishing. The squadron under Captain John Pope that had been sent, after the escape of the Sumter to sea, to the mouth of the Mississippi, had a chance to bring on an action, in October, 1861, with several of the Confederate naval vessels. But Pope's ships got aground in the passes of the delta, and he and his captains exercising undue caution, refused offer of battle and made out into the Gulf. There were two brilliant bits of boat-work at Pensacola and Galveston. Lieutenant John H. Russell cut out and destroyed the unfinished Confederate privateer Judah, at the Pensacola Navy-Yard, on September 13, 1861, and Lieutenant James E. Jouett, of the frigate Santee, took and destroyed the privateer Royal Yacht in Galveston Harbor, in November.

Many were the gallant acts of the enlisted men and petty officers in the fighting along the shore. In the expedition under Flag-Officer Goldsborough against Roanoke Island, in February, 1862, there were two brave little fights between the

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