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Southern coast. The Alabama and her kind, as already said, counted for nought, excepting as their exploits should influence European opinion and action. The destruction they caused was a property destruction only, not a destruction of naval power, which was what really counted. And the actual property destruction was finally found to amount to less than ten million dollars, or not more than the fiftieth part of that endured by San Francisco in the catastrophe of 1906.

It was not until the ironclad came upon the scene that the Federal cause was in jeopardy. The frigate Merrimac was sunk at Norfolk when the navy-yard was so unfortunately yielded through the administration's unwillingness to use its strength, and the thousands of cannon there in store, along with those at Pensacola, went to arm the Confederacy. With immense energy on the part of the Southern officers, the Merrimac was raised, her upper decks removed, and the ship reconstructed as an armored vessel. Her advent in Hampton Roads, March 8, 1862, where in the first moment were but some wooden ships, among them the large steam frigate Minnesota and the sailing frigates Congress and Cumberland, brought on a memorably heroic fight, in which the Congress was burned and the Cumberland sunk with her colors flying. That night came almost providentially the Monitor, with her heroic commander, Lieutenant Worden, and her equally courageous first lieutenant, S. Dana Greene. The fight of the next day, its outcome, the withdrawal of the Merrimac, her later destruction by the Confederates, and the effect upon the world, we all know. Besides saving to the Union the possession of Hampton Roads and Chesapeake Bay, it saved a possible appearance of what, up to that moment, was an irresistible force off Northern ports, the appearance of which would have had a disastrous effect upon Federal interests in the development of European action in favor of the South.

Other ironclads had, in Europe, preceded the Monitor and Merrimac, some armored batteries having been used by the French in 1855, during the Crimean war; and the French,

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