experienced men then in the navy to officer more than a small portion of the ships brought into service, and it was necessary to call for recruits.
The merchant marine was drawn on for many valuable men, who filled the stations to which they were assigned with credit to themselves and the navy.
It may be said to the credit of both the merchant marine and the “service,” however, that the consequent jealousy of rank that at times was shown resulted in nothing more serious than temporary dissatisfaction, and was seldom openly expressed.
The men of both callings had been too well trained to the discipline of the sea to question the orders of their superiors, and after the distribution of commissions usually settled down to a faithful and efficient discharge of the duties to which they had been assigned.
From the outset of the war, it appeared more difficult to secure enlistments for the navy than for the army, and with the constant addition of ships it finally became necessary to offer large bounties to all the naval recruits in order to keep the quota up to the required numbers.
During the war the United States navy built two hundred and eight vessels and purchased four hundred and eighteen.
Of these, nearly sixty were ironclads, mostly monitors.
With the introduction of the ironclad and the continual increase of the thickness and efficiency of the armor as the war progressed, the guns of the navy also changed in weight and pattern.
The advent of the ironclad made necessary the introduction of heavier ordnance.
The manufacturers of these guns throughout the North
were called upon to provide for the emergency.
At the beginning of the war, the 32-pounder and the 8-inch were almost the highest-power guns in use, though some of the steam vessels were provided with 11-inch Dahlgren
Before the war had closed, the 11-inch Dahlgren
, which had been regarded as a “monster” at the start, had been far overshadowed, and the caliber had increased to 15-inch, then 18-inch, and finally by a 20-inch that came so