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[248] wound, so arranged as to drain the excess of water into another vessel on the floor at the bunk side. In some cases minor amputations, gunshot and incised wounds limited in degree of severity were hermetically sealed by adhesive plaster, or the starch bandage, securing ‘union by first intention.’ But suppuration was largely the rule, and in extensive wounds ‘laudable pus’ was regarded as essential.

Instruments were procured by the medical bureau in the earlier part of the war from stock in the hands of dealers in the larger cities, later by blockade-runners, and by the handiwork of a few skilled workers in metals in the Southern States. Some were somewhat crude and clumsy, and lacked the beautiful polish and finish given by the experienced and well-equipped instrument maker. Occasionally a fortunate surgeon would acquire a good case of instruments by capture; but quite a number of our surgeons brought from their homes both amputating-and pocket-cases, their private property purchased before the coming on of hostilities.

Books were far more scarce than instruments. However, those who so desired could at times provide themselves in a meager way. Some surgeons made a point of calling on village and country practitioners in the vicinity of the army, and on more than one occasion, during such peregrinations, managed to make a purchase of medical works. The author has now in his library a copy of ‘Erichsen's Surgery,’ purchased from a Doctor Johnson in the vicinity of Clinton, Louisiana, just after the battle of Baton Rouge, August, 1862. The price paid was one ounce of ‘P. & W.’ sulphate of quinine, of which I had at the time an ample supply. I have also a copy of Wilson's ‘Dissector,’ 1857 edition, which I had carried with me from home, and managed to bring back with me, it being less cumbersome than the text-book of anatomy by the same author. Other books which I managed to secure from time to time by ‘barter and exchange,’ but was forced to abandon because of their size and weight, were

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