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Grant in 1863—before the first of his great victories Grant was described in 1861 as a man ‘who knows how to do things.’ In February, 1862, he captured Forts Henry and Donelson, thus opening the way for a Federal advance up the Tennessee River, and was promptly commissioned major-general. His experience at Shiloh in April, coupled with failures in official routine during the Donelson campaign which were not approved by his superiors, left him under a cloud which was not removed until the capture of Vicksburg, July 4, 1863, revealed capacity of a high order. The government's plan of conducting the war was then entrusted to him to work out with practically unlimited power.

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