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[34] unbelligerent that he never had even a ‘spat’ at West Point, displaying no martial qualities except, perhaps, in his love of horses and in their fearless handling, there was in him no suggestion of the vocation of the soldier. He entered the Military Academy simply because his father desired that he should do so, and while there he secretly rejoiced because of the report that Congress was proposing to abolish the academy. The thought of the girl he left behind was constantly with him during his cadet course, though this youthful romance ended in the disillusion which often attends such experiences.

And it was this man, whose personal characteristics were all so unlike those distinguishing the remorseless conqueror, ‘slaughtering men for glory's sake,’ who was selected from among the heroes of our great domestic strife for the appellation of ‘butcher.’ No one of them less deserved this title, for none of them accomplished as great results with a less proportionate loss of life. The repulse of Lee at Gettysburg, in 1863, was obtained at a cost of 23,000 casualties—3155 killed, 14,529 wounded, 5365 missing—and at the end Lee marched with his army from the field of battle. The more complete victory at Vicksburg, with the surrender of Pemberton's entire army of 30,000 men, was obtained by Grant with a casualty list of only 9362, including about 450 missing.

Heavy as were the losses during the year which preceded the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia, they were less than the aggregate loss, including ‘missing,’ of previous commanders of the Army of the Potomac in unsuccessful attempts to accomplish the same result in the same field. Grant's total of killed and wounded was 19,597 less than the average number killed and injured annually by the railroads of the United States during the four years ending 1910.

Those who ‘control the destiny of to-morrow’ are those who are the most apt in learning that, in great matters, it is

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