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[124] this loss utterly destroyed the army. The Federals at Chickamauga withstood a loss practically the same-thirty per cent. —and still successfully defied the Confederates to attack them in Chattanooga.

the percentage of loss in battle by an entire army is, of course, obtained by including all present—those participating slightly, or even not at all, as well as those who bore the brunt of the fight.

bearing this in mind, the reader will note to the credit of these troops that the dreadful losses sustained at Sharpsburg by the Fifteenth Massachusetts, Twenty-eighth Pennsylvania, Ninth New York. Twelfth Massachusetts, First Delaware, and other regiments; at Stone's River, December 31, 1862, by the Eighteenth United States Infantry, Twenty-Second Illinois, and other regiments; at Gettysburg, by the Twenty-Fourth Michigan, one hundred and eleventh New York, First Minnesota, one hundred and Twenty-sixth New York, and one hundred and fifty-first Pennsylvania, were all suffered while the Federals were winning victories—suffered fighting, not in retreating.

so, also, the losses at the Wilderness of the Second Vermont, Fourth Vermont, and Ninety-third New York, occurred when the Federals, for the most part, held their ground. And nearly all the astonishing losses of the Confederate regiments were suffered when they were either winning victories or stubbornly holding on to the field of battle.

Altogether, the casualties in the greatest of the battles of the Civil War, whether considered in the aggregate or in the tragic light of regimental losses, make up a wonderful record. In Étude sur les caracteres generaux de la guerre d'extreme Orient, par Le Capitaine Brevete F. Cullmann, Paris, 1909, the percentage of Federal losses at Gettysburg is given

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