Mrs. Scott at their home, Elizabeth, New Jersey, in 1862. A closer portrait study of the general appears below. Winfield Scott became the first general-in-chief of the United States Army during the Civil War, being already in that position when the war broke out. He was then nearly seventy-five years old. The aged hero owed his exalted rank and his military fame to his dashing and vigorous achievements as commander in the Mexican War. He directed until retired by his own request in November, 1861. Scott possessed an imposing figure and courage equal to every danger. He was exacting in discipline—that power which the French call “the glory of the soldier and the strength of armies.” Major-General Henry Wager Halleck assumed command of the Army and Department of Missouri in 1861, and from his headquarters at St. Louis directed the operations of the forces which early in 1862 compelled the Confederates to evacuate Kentucky and Central and West Tennessee. After he assumed control of all the armies as successor to McClellan in July, 1862, he made his headquarters in Washington, performing duties similar to those of a chief-of-staff in a modern army. His military decisions in particular crises as Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville and Gettysburg were not always approved by critics; nevertheless, he bore a reputation for genius as a commander. He was succeeded in the duties of general-in-chief in February, 1864, by Lieutenant-General Ulysses S. Grant.