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[166] this point into a neck but little more than one hundred miles in width. After this success, McClellan was placed, July 25, 1861, at the head of the newly created District (afterward Department) of the Potomac, and began the organization and training of the army of that name. From November 5, 1861 to March 11th of the following year, he was general-in-chief of the armies of the United States, and after the latter date continued in command of the Army of the Potomac until November 9, 1862, when he was replaced by Major-General A. E. Burnside. He took no further part in the war. His removal was due to dissatisfaction with his methods that gradually developed among President Lincoln and his advisers. The failure of the army to capture Richmond in the Peninsula campaign, and the non-pursuit of Lee immediately after Antietam were the chief reasons. As the nominee of the Democratic party, he was defeated for the presidency in 1864, and his resignation from the army was accepted on November 8th. He now spent several years abroad, returning to live in New Jersey, of which State he became governor in 1877. Aside from his military abilities, McClellan was a man of fine tastes in literature and art, and also took an active interest in promoting the manufacturing industries of the State. He wrote his autobiography, and several works of a military nature. His death occurred October 29, 1885, at Orange.

Army of the Potomac

By the consolidation of the Department of Washington and the Department of Northeastern Virginia, July 25, 1861, the Military District of the Potomac was constituted and placed under command of Major-General George B. McClellan. On August 15, 1861, the Department, or Army of the Potomac was created from it, and as such it was known thereafter. Major-General McClellan assumed command of this Army August 20, 1861. As then constituted, it was organized in fourteen brigades composed largely of the troops (regular army and volunteer) of the Department of Northeastern Virginia, under Brigadier-General Irvin McDowell, and new organizations. Most of these brigades had artillery and some of them cavalry. McClellan immediately applied his military knowledge to remodeling the army, and in October a new organization was announced. The division was now the unit, and there were fourteen, including one stationed at Baltimore. There were also one provisional Brigade, a provost-guard, a cavalry command, and a cavalry reserve. During the winter of 1861-62, the Army of the Potomac was thoroughly drilled. A new organization was announced in March, 1862, and this the army retained, except while Burnside created the grand division, until it was discontinued, June 28, 1865. The corps were the units, and their number varied from time to time. There were also the provost-guard, the guard for general headquarters, a full artillery, and cavalry reserve. A cavalry division was formed in July, 1862, and reorganized as a cavalry corps in February, 1863. The successive commanders of the Army of the Potomac were: Major-General George B. McClellan to November 9, 1862; Major-General A. E. Burnside to January 26, 1863; Major-General Joseph Hooker to June 28, 1863, being succeeded by Major-General George G. Meade, who remained at its head until it was discontinued, June 28, 1865, except for a short interval in January, 1865, when Major-General John G. Parke was in temporary command.

Major-General Ambrose Everett Burnside

(U. S.M. A. 1847) was born in Liberty, Indiana, May 23, 1824. He served in the artillery with the rank of first lieutenant, resigned his commission, in 1853, to take up the manufacture of a breech-loading rifle which he had invented. At the outbreak of the Civil War he was an officer of the Illinois Central Railroad Company. For gallant service at Bull Run he was made brigadier-general of volunteers, and in March, 1862, major-general of volunteers. He organized an expeditionary corps in December, 1861, and this was merged in the Department of North Carolina, of which Burnside was the head from January to July, 1862. He captured Roanoke Island and occupied New Berne. From these troops and others was organized, July 22, 1862, the Ninth Corps, with Burnside at its head. He served under McClellan at South Mountain, and at Antietam, where he commanded the left wing, and succeeded him in the command of the Army of the Potomac. Later, Major-General Burnside was assigned to command of the Department of the Ohio. Burnside and the Ninth Corps were with Grant in the

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