Savannah, Georgia, January 21, 1813. He became professor of mathematics in the United States navy, and was commissioned second lieutenant in the Corps of Topographical Engineers, in 1838. He conducted several exploring expeditions to the Far West, during one of which he fomented a revolt against Mexican rule in California and raised the Bear Flag in that region. Later, he assisted in the Mexican War and was made civil governor of California by Commodore Stockton. Trouble arose between him and General Kearny, who had been charged with the establishment of the Government, which resulted in a court martial and Fremont's resignation from the army. He settled in California, represented that State in the Senate, and was the unsuccessful Republican candidate for President, in 1856. At the outbreak of the Civil War, he was appointed major-general, and on July 25, 1861, put at the head of the Western Department, with headquarters at St. Louis, where he made an attempt to free the slaves of Southern sympathizers. This act led to his removal in November, and the following March he was given command of the newly created Mountain Department. He refused to serve as corps commander under Major-General Pope when his troops were merged in the Army of Virginia. He resigned from the army in June, 1864. He became interested in railroad building and was governor of Arizona (1878– 1882). In 1890, he was reappointed major-general and was retired with that rank on April 28th. He died July 13, 1890.
First Army CorpsThe first Army Corps was originally planned to consist of the troops of the Mountain Department, earlier known as the Department of Western Virginia, under command of Brigadier-General W. S. Rosecrans, but by order of the President, the First Corps, from troops of the Army of the Potomac, was placed under command of Major-General Irvin McDowell, March 13, 1862. On April 4th, the First Corps was discontinued and the troops sent to the Department of the Rappahannock, and then in turn merged in the Army of Virginia, as the Third Corps, on June 26, 1862. The First Corps, Army of the Potomac, was recreated September 12, 1862, from the troops of the Third Corps, Army of Virginia, coming successively under command of Major-General Joseph Hooker, Brigadier-General George G. Meade, Brigadier-General J. S. Wadsworth, Major-Generals J. F. Reynolds, Abner Doubleday, and John Newton. This corps rendered gallant service at South Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg, among the more important engagements. It was discontinued March 24, 1864, when it became merged in the Fifth Corps, Army of the Potomac.
Columbus, Ohio, October 15, 1818. He rendered distinguished service in the Mexican War. As brigadier-general at the head of the Department of Northeastern Virginia, he had command of the Union army at First Bull Run. Afterward, with a commission of major-general of volunteers, he had a division in the Army of the Potomac. In further reorganizations and changes he headed his troops as commander of the First Corps, Army of the Potomac; Department of the Rappahannock, and Third Corps, Army of Virginia. His conspicuous services at Cedar Mountain won him the brevet of major-general, which full rank he attained in 1872. Immediately after Second Bull Run he was relieved from field service, and was president of several army boards. In July, 1864, he was placed at the head of the Department of the Pacific, and after the war held various commands. He was retired in 1882, and died in San Francisco, May 4, 1885.
Ballston Spa, New York, June 26, 1819, and served in the Mexican and Seminole wars. As captain of the artillery he was at Fort Sumter under Major Anderson, and fired upon the Confederates the first Federal gun of the Civil War. He served under Major-General Patterson in the Valley, and on February 3, 1862, was made brigadier-general of volunteers and placed in charge of the defenses of Washington. He had a brigade in the Third Corps, Army of Virginia, and afterward a division, which he retained when the corps again became the First