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[188] Corps, Army of the Potomac. In November, 1862, he became major-general of volunteers. He fought at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. When Reynolds was killed on the field of Gettysburg, the command of the First Corps fell upon him for the day, July 1, 1863, until he was succeeded by Major-General John Newton. After being mustered out of the volunteer service, he served as colonel in the regular army until he was retired in 1873. He had been brevetted brigadier and major-general in 1865. Major-General Doubleday was the author of several important military works. He died January 27, 1893, at Mendham, New Jersey.

Major-General John Newton

(U. S.M. A. 1842) was born in Norfolk, Virginia, August 24, 1823. After graduation he taught engineering at West Point for three years, and then devoted himself to the construction of fortifications. The outbreak of the Civil War found him chief engineer of the Department of Pennsylvania, and he assisted in preparing the defenses of the national capital. The rank of brigadier-general of volunteers was given him in September, 1861, and he remained with the organization which was eventually the First Corps, Army of the Potomac, as brigade and division commander, being made major-general of volunteers in March, 1863. He succeeded to the command of the corps after Reynolds' death at Gettysburg, July 1, 1863, and led it until it was discontinued, March 24, 1864. His appointment as major-general of volunteers expired in April, 1864, and with his former title he succeeded Sheridan in a division of the Fourth Corps, Army of the Cumberland. After the war, he continued in the regular army and reached the grade of brigadier-general in 1884, being retired in 1886. His most renowned achievement was the removal of the reefs at Hell Gate in the harbor of New York. General Newton was commissioner of public works, New York city, from 1887 to 1888, and then president of the Panama Railroad Company. He died, May 1, 1895.

Miajor-General John Fulton Reynolds

(U. S. M.A. 1841) was born in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, September 20, 1820, and served in the Mexican War, and in the Rogue River Indian and Utah expeditions. At the outbreak of the Civil War, he was commandant at West Point, but with the rank of brigadier-general of volunteers took active part in the operations of the Army of the Potomac from August, 1861. He commanded a brigade of the Pennsylvania Reserves which was merged in the First Corps, Army of the Potomac. He went with McDowell to the Department of the Rappahannock but returned to the Army of the Potomac at the head of a brigade in the Fifth Corps, for the move to the James. He was taken prisoner at Glendale but was exchanged. The brigade joined the Third Corps, Army of Virginia, in which Reynolds commanded a division. Again with the Army of the Potomac, Reynolds was given the First Corps on September 29, 1862, and later was made major-general of volunteers. On the first day of Gettysburg, July 1, 1863, he was killed by a Confederate sharpshooter. Reynolds' loss was most keenly felt in the Federal army.

Second Army Corps

Created by the general order of March 3, 1862, chiefly from Sumner's and Blenker's divisions of the Army of the Potomac as constituted in October, 1861. Major-General Sumner was its first commander, and his successors were Major-Generals D. N. Couch, John Sedgwick, O. O. Howard, W. S. Hancock, G. K. Warren, D. B. Birney, A. A. Humphreys, Brevet Major-Generals Gershom Mott, N. A. Miles, and F. C. Barlow, and Brigadier-Generals John Gibbon, William Hays, and J. C. Caldwell. The Second Corps was with the Army of the Potomac all through the war and took part in all its great engagements. It suffered most severely at Antietam. It was discontinued June 28, 1865. The Second Corps made a notable record for itself. One interesting fact is that until the battle of Spotsylvania, on May 10, 1864, it never lost a gun or a color.

Major-General Edwin Vose Sumner

was born in Boston, January 30, 1797, enlisting in the army in 1819. He rendered distinguished service in the Black Hawk and Mexican wars, and was military governor of New Mexico from 1851 to 1853. As brigadier-general, he superseded Brevet Brigadier-General Albert Sidney Johnston in the command of the Department of the Pacific in April, 1861. He came East to participate in

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