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[242] and attempted to prevent Sherman's advance through the Carolinas. Johnston's capitulation was agreed upon near Durham's Station, North Carolina, April 26, 1865. He was United States commissioner of railroads from 1885 to 1889. He died in Washington, March 21, 1891.

Army of the Peninsula

The Department of the Peninsula was established on May 26, 1861, and Colonel John B. Magruder was put in command. The troops therein were organized into divisions in November, and denominated the Army of the Peninsula. In December, the aggregate present was about sixteen thousand. On April 12, 1862, it was merged in the Army of Northern Virginia—constituting, under Major-General Magruder, the right wing of that army.

Major-General John Bankhead Magruder

(U. S.M. A. 1830) was born at Winchester, Virginia, August 15, 1810, and served in the Seminole and Mexican wars. He was stationed in Washington in 1861, and resigned in April to enter the Confederate service as colonel. He had charge of the artillery in and around Richmond, and after May 21st, a division in the Department of the Peninsula, the troops of which were later designated the Army of the Peninsula. On June 10th, his division repelled the attack of Major-General B. F. Butler at Big Bethel, for which feat he was made brigadier-general. In October, he was promoted to major-general. Having fortified the Peninsula, he kept McClellan's army in check in April, 1862. On April 18th, his forces became the Right Wing of the Army of Northern Virginia, and he commanded it during the Peninsula campaign. Magruder was then appointed to the Trans-Mississippi Department, in order to prosecute the war more vigorously in the West, but the assignment was changed, and in October, 1862, he was given the District of Texas, which was afterward enlarged to include New Mexico and Arizona. Magruder recaptured Galveston, January 1, 1863, and kept the port open. After the war he served in the army of Maximilian, and after the fall of the Mexican empire settled in Houston, Texas, where he died, February 19, 1871.

Army of the Northwest

The troops assigned to operate in northwestern Virginia were placed under the command of Brigadier-General R. S. Garnett on June 8, 1861, and were subsequently known as the Army of the Northwest. This was the force that opposed McClellan and Rosecrans in West Virginia, and was defeated at Rich Mountain and other places. On July 13th, Garnett was killed while retreating, and Brigadier-General Henry R. Jackson was put in command, to be superseded, within a week, by Brigadier-General W. W. Loring. Early in 1862, dissension arose between Loring and T. J. Jackson, commanding the Valley District (Department of Northern Virginia), which led to the latter preferring charges against the commander of the Army of the Northwest. As a result, the Secretary of War, on February 9, 1862, divided the army, sending some of the regiments to Knoxville, some to the Aquia District, and the remainder to the Army of the Potomac (Department of Northern Virginia) . After this, the forces under Brigadier-General Edward Johnson stationed at Camp Alleghany, and sometimes called the Army of the Alleghany, continued to be called the Army of the Northwest. Its aggregate strength in March, 1862, was about four thousand. It finally came under Jackson in the Valley District and passed into the Army of Northern Virginia.

Brigadier-General Robert Selden Garnett

(U. S.M. A. 1841) was born in Essex County, Virginia, December 16, 1819, and served in the Mexican War as aide to General Taylor. At the outbreak of the Civil War he entered the Confederate service, and in June, 1861, was appointed brigadier-general, with command of the Army of the Northwest. In the action at Carrick's Ford he was killed, June 13, 1861.

Brigadier-General Henry Rootes Jackson

was born in Athens, Georgia, June 24, 1820, and became a lawyer. He served in the Mexican War as colonel of the First Georgia Volunteers, and was charge d'affaires at Vienna, in 1863. As United States district attorney for Georgia he aided in trying slave-trading cases. At the outbreak of the

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