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[246]

Army of Northern Virginia


General J. E. Johnston

was wounded at Seven Pines, May 31, 1862, and Major-General G. W. Smith took command of the Army of Northern Virginia. On June 1st, General Robert E. Lee assumed command. In April, the forces on the Peninsula had been included in this army, and now the troops in eastern Virginia and North Carolina were made part of it. By the end of July, 1862, the division organization had been further concentrated into three commands, or corps, headed by Major-Generals T. J. Jackson, James Longstreet, and D. H. Hill, with cavalry under Brigadier-General J. E. B. Stuart, and artillery under Brigadier-General W. N. Pendleton. There was an aggregate present of about ninety-five thousand. Subsequently, the army took a more permanent form in two corps commanded by Jackson and Longstreet, with cavalry corps and artillery separate. Lieutenant-General A. P. Hill was given the Second Corps after Jackson's death, and on May 30, 1863, this was divided, with additions from the First Corps, into the Second and Third corps, commanded by Lieutenant-Generals R. S. Ewell and A. P. Hill respectively. The army numbered about seventy thousand in the Gettysburg campaign. This organization of the main body of the army continued throughout the war, although other generals, for various reasons, commanded the corps from time to time. A new corps of North Carolina and Virginia troops under Lieutenant-General R. H. Anderson was added at the end of 1864. Longstreet's corps, with the exception of Pickett's division, was with the Army of Tennessee, and in eastern Tennessee, for a short period in 1863 and 1864, at and after the battle of Chickamauga. The last report of the army, February, 1865, showed an aggregate present of over seventy-three thousand. The Army of Northern Virginia laid down its arms at Appomattox Court House, April 9, 1865.


First Corps—Army of Northern Virginia

The organization of the volunteer Confederate forces under Brigadier-General Beauregard into the First Corps, Army of the Potomac, was announced on June 20, 1861. There were then six brigades, which number was increased later to eight. The strength of the corps was about thirty thousand. A division organization was afterward adopted, and one of these divisions, commanded by Major-General Longstreet, was denominated the Center of Position, Army of Northern Virginia, at the opening of the Peninsula campaign. It contained about fourteen thousand men. As the Second Division (or Corps) of the army, the troops fought from Fair Oaks, where they were known as the Right Wing, through the Seven Days battles. Toward the end of July, the army was further concentrated into commands of which one, consisting of six divisions, was headed by Longstreet, and this, during the campaign against Pope, was called the Right Wing or Longstreet's Corps. After the battle of Antietam, the corps was designated the First Corps, Army of Northern Virginia. In September, 1863, Lee sent the corps, with the exception of Pickett's division, to assist Bragg, and, as Longstreet's Corps, fought in the Army of Tennessee at Chickamauga and remained in East Tennessee until April, 1864, when it rejoined the Army of Virginia. Major-General R. H. Anderson succeeded to the command of the corps after Longstreet was wounded at the battle of the Wilderness, day 6th. The latter returned to his corps, October 19th, and continued at the head until the surrender at Appomattox.


Lieutenant-General James Longstreet

(U. S. M.A. 1842) was born in Edgefield District, South Carolina, January 8, 1821, and served in the Mexican War, where he was severely wounded. In June, 1861, he resigned as major in the army and was appointed brigadier-general in the Confederate service. As major-general, he had a division, and, later, as lieutenant-general, the First Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia. In September, 1863, he was sent with part of his corps to Tennessee and took command of the left wing at the battle of Chickamauga. He was then placed at the head of the Department of East Tennessee and returned to Virginia in April, 1864. He was severely wounded at the battle of the Wilderness, May 6, 1864, but resumed command of the corps in October. After the war, he engaged in business in New Orleans and held several political offices. In 1880– 81 he was American minister to Turkey, and in 1898 he was appointed United States railway commissioner. He died at Gainesville, Georgia, January 2, 1904.

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