member of the Charleston Convention. He went to the Civil War as colonel of an Arkansas regiment, and served in the armies of the West and of the Mississippi. For his conduct at Shiloh he was made major-general. He was, at different times, division commander in the Army of Tennessee, and a temporary commander of the Second Corps, and was also at the head of the Trans-Mississippi District and that of Arkansas. He was defeated at Prairie Grove and at Newtonia. After the war, he went to Mexico, but returned to Arkansas and was murdered by one of his former soldiers at Helena, September 28, 1868.
Charleston, South Carolina, September 22, 1833. He resigned from the army in February, 1861, to enter the Confederate service as captain in the artillery, and rose to the rank of lieutenant-general June, 1864. He was one of the three men who called on Major Anderson, April 12, 1861, and demanded the surrender of Fort Sumter. He had a battalion in the Washington Artillery, and was prominent at Second Bull Run and at Antietam. He was then sent to the West and commanded a division at the battle of Chickasaw Bayou, December 27, 1862, driving back the Federal troops with great slaughter. He was among those who surrendered at Vicksburg, July 4, 1863, and in August was put at the head of the cavalry in the Department of Alabama, Mississippi, and East Louisiana, and fought at Tupelo and other places. In May, 1864, he succeeded Lieutenant-General Polk at the head of this department, remaining there until July, when he was assigned to the command of Hood's Corps, Army of Tennessee, General Hood having been placed at the head of the whole army. Henceforth it was known as Lee's Corps. He was wounded December 17, 1864, while protecting the rear of the army in the retreat from Nashville. After the war he became a planter in Mississippi; a member of the State legislature; and in 1880 he became president of the Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College. He was also at the head of the Vicksburg National Park, and was commander-inchief of the United Confederate Veterans, after the death of Lieutenant-General John B. Gordon, in 1904. He died at Vicksburg, Mississippi, May 28, 1908.
Wheeler's Cavalry Corps—Army of TennesseeOn January 22, 1863, Major-General Joseph Wheeler was assigned to command all the cavalry in Middle Tennessee. On March 16th, the cavalry divisions in the Army of Tennessee were designated as corps, and were given the names of their respective commanders, Wheeler and Van Dorn. The corps were organized into divisions and brigades, and Wheeler's Corps, sometimes known as the Second Corps, had an aggregate present of nearly twelve thousand. It displayed great activity in Tennessee, making numerous raids and guarding the flanks of the army. After the battle of Chickamauga, it made a famous raid on Rosecrans' communications, October, 1863. It also operated on the flanks of the army during the Atlanta and other campaigns until the close of the war.
Augusta, Georgia, September 10, 1836, and entered the mounted infantry, resigning, in 1861, to join the Confederate army, in which he reached the rank of major-general (January, 1863), and commander of the Second Cavalry Corps, Army of Tennessee. He was conspicuous as a raider, and was constantly employed in guarding the flanks of the army, cutting the Federal communications, covering retreats, and obtaining information for the army commanders. He was appointed lieutenant-general, February 28, 1865. After the war, he was a member of Congress from 1881 to 1899. He was commissioned major-general of volunteers in 1898, and went to the Spanish War, commanding the troops at Las Guasimas, and was senior field-officer at the battle of San Juan Hill. He was senior member of the commission which negotiated the surrender of Santiago. He served with the American troops during the insurrection in the Philippines from August, 1899, to January 24, 1900, and on June 13, 1900, was appointed brigadier-general of the United States army, being retired the following September. He died in Brooklyn, New York, January 25, 1906. General Wheeler made a unique reputation for himself as a cavalry leader, and in the Spanish war his services won universal acknowledgment as typical of the complete reunion of the North and South.