in reenforcing Rosecrans after Corinth, October, 1862, won him the rank of major-general of volunteers, and after the fall of Vicksburg he received the commission of brigadier-general of the regular army. He succeeded Major-General William T. Sherman in the command of the Army of the Tennessee, March 12, 1864, and was killed at the battle of Atlanta, July 22, 1864.
Jackson County, Illinois, February 9, 1826. He served in the Mexican War, rising from a private to the rank of second lieutenant. He was afterward admitted to the bar and finally reached Congress. During his term here the Civil War broke out and he enlisted and fought at Bull Run. Returning to the West, he raised the Thirty-first Illinois Infantry, afterward becoming its colonel. He was wounded at Fort Donelson and shortly afterward was made major-general of volunteers. In the Vicksburg campaigns he commanded a division of the Seventeenth Corps. In 1863, he took command of the Fifteenth Corps and served in the Atlanta campaign and led his troops through the Carolinas. He was made head of the Department of the Tennessee May 19, 1865. He was elected to the United States Senate in 1871, and was defeated for the vice-presidency of the United States on the Republican ticket of 1884. He died in Washington, December 26, 1886.
Leeds, Maine, November 8, 1830. He served as chief of ordnance, and as first lieutenant taught mathematics at West Point until the Civil War broke out, when he left the regular army to command the Third Maine Volunteers. He headed a brigade in the first battle of Bull Run and was promoted to brigadier-general of volunteers in September, 1861. At Fair Oaks, where he lost his right arm, he achieved distinction as an able fighter. After Antietam, he commanded a division of the Second Corps, and later, as major-general of volunteers, the corps itself for a short time. On April 2, 1863, the Eleventh Corps was given him, and it was these troops that were so badly routed by ‘Stonewall’ Jackson at Chancellorsville. In September, 1863, Howard and his corps were transferred to the Army of the Cumberland, in which he became leader of the Fourth Corps, April, 1864. Howard's services at Gettysburg, Lookout Mountain, and Missionary Ridge were conspicuous. He accompanied Sherman to the relief of Knoxville, and fought in all the battles of the Atlanta campaign, succeeding Major-General McPherson to the command of the Army of the Tennessee, and marching with Sherman through Georgia and the Carolinas. After the close of the war he commanded the Nez Perce Indian expedition of 1877, the Bannock, and Piute campaigns, and from 1880 to 1882, was superintendent of the Military Academy, West Point. He was (1865-74) commissioner of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, and in 1895 founded the Lincoln Memorial University and the industrial school at Cumberland Gap, Tennessee. Major-General Howard was a noted total-abstinence advocate and was much interested in Sunday-school work. He was retired with full rank in 1894, and he died at Burlington, Vermont, October, 26, 1909.