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[176] at Cedar Mountain, on August 9th, but the entire organization was defeated at Manassas by Jackson and Longstreet, August 29th and 30th, and withdrew to the lines of Washington. On September 12th, the Army of Virginia was merged in the Army of the Potomac.

Major-General John Pope

(U. S.M. A. 1842) was born in Louisville, Kentucky, March 16, 1822. He served in the Mexican War, rising to the rank of captain. After this he did much work on engineering service in connection with the development of the West. When the Civil War broke out, Pope was sent to Cairo, Illinois, and later to command the troops in northern Missouri. From February to June, 1862, he headed the newly created Army of the Mississippi, during which time he was made major-general of volunteers and brigadier-general of the regular army. His most notable achievement was the capture of Island No.10, as a result of which he was put in command of the Army of Virginia, June 26, 1862. The reverse of Second Bull Run caused him to ask to be relieved of this command, and he was sent to the Department of the Northwest, to carry on the war against the Sioux Indians. He headed other departments in the West until he was retired, in 1886. His last command was the Department of the Pacific. He was brevetted major-general in March, 1865, for his services at Island No.10, and received the full rank in 1882. Major-General Pope died at Sandusky, Ohio, September 23, 1892.

Army of the Southwest

Created December 25, 1861, from troops in portions of the Department of Missouri. It was merged in the District of Eastern Arkansas, Department of Tennessee, December 13, 1862, and was commanded during its existence by Brigadier-Generals S. R. Curtis, Frederick Steele, E. A. Carr, and W. A. Gorman. This army fought many minor but important engagements in Missouri and Arkansas, including Bentonville, Sugar Creek, and Pea Ridge.

Major-General Samuel Ryan Curtis

(U. S. M. A. 1831) was born near Champlain, New York, February, 1807, and resigned from the army to become a civil engineer and, later, a lawyer. He served as colonel of volunteers in the Mexican War, and afterward went to Congress. He was made brigadier-general of volunteers in May, 1861, and was commander of the Army of the Southwest from December, 1861, to August, 1862. He conducted an active campaign against Van Dorn and Price, during which he won the battle of Pea Ridge, March 7-8, 1862, and was made major-general of volunteers that same month. Later, he was unable to hold Arkansas and was compelled to march to the Mississippi River. He was in command of the Department of Missouri, September, 1862, to May, 1863, and of Kansas, January, 1864, to January, 1865, after which he was at the head of that of the Northwest. He negotiated treaties with several Indian tribes, and was mustered out of the volunteer service April 30, 1866. He died at Council Bluffs, Iowa, December 26, 1866.

Major-General Frederick Steele

(U. S.M. A. 1843) was born in Delhi, New York, January 14, 1819, and served in the Mexican War. He was a major when the Civil War broke out and rose to be major-general of volunteers in November, 1862. Steele served with distinction in Missouri, and was given a division in the Army of the Southwest in May, 1862. For a short time, he had command of the army itself. When it was broken up, he was finally transferred into the Department of the Tennessee, having a division on Sherman's Yazoo Expedition, McClernand's Army of the Mississippi, and the new Fifteenth Army Corps, with which he took part in the Vicksburg campaign. In August, 1863, he was given charge of the Arkansas Expedition, which developed into the Seventh Army Corps, at the head of which he remained until December, 1864. He was given a separate command in the district of West Florida, and assisted Major-General Gordon Granger at the final operations around Mobile. After muster-out from the volunteer service, he returned to the regular army as colonel, having already received the brevet of major-general for the capture of Little Rock. He died at San Mateo, California, January 12, 1868.

Major-General Eugene Asa Carr

(U. S.M. A. 1850) was born in Erie County, New York, in

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