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[20] many cases between fighters and non-combatants. This is true, even when the latter are represented in full army overcoats, with swords and the like, as was customary to some extent with postmasters, quartermasters, commissariat and hospital attendants.

The features are distinctive of the men who have stood up under fire, and undergone the even severer ordeal of submission to a will working for the common good, involving the sacrifice of personal independence. Their dignity and quiet selfconfidence are obscured neither by the extreme growth of facial hair fashionable in the sixties, nor by the stains of marching and camping. Where the photograph ‘caught’ the real soldiers under any circumstances of dress or undress, health or disease, camp-ease, or wounds that had laid the subjects low, the stamp of discipline stands revealed.

The young officers' portraits afford particularly interesting study. The habit of quick decision, the weighing of responsibilities involving thousands of human lives which has become a daily matter, like the morning and evening train-catching of the modern business commuter—these swift and tremendous affairs are borne with surprising calmness upon the young shoulders.

To represent in some coherent form the men of Civil War time, this volume has been set aside. It becomes highly desirable to the fundamental plan of this history.

The first three volumes, devoted to narrative in the largest sense, and to scenes, could present portraits only of officers and men connected with particular operations. Each of the next six volumes, occupied as it is with a special phase of war-time activity—cavalry, artillery, prisons and hospitals, or the like

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