Sinsheim, Baden, November 18, 1824, and was graduated from the Military School at Carlsruhe, becoming a champion of German unity and minister of war to the revolutionary Government of 1848, which was overthrown by Prussia. Later, having withdrawn to Switzerland, the Government expelled him, and he emigrated to America in 1852. He taught in a military institute in St. Louis and edited a military periodical. When the Civil War broke out, he organized the Third Missouri Infantry and an artillery battery, and after assisting Captain Lyon in the capture of Camp Jackson, he served in Missouri, at Carthage and at Springfield. As brigadier-general of volunteers, he was conspicuous for his bravery at Pea Ridge, and as major-general of volunteers was placed in command of Harper's Ferry in June, 1862. Then he served in the Army of Virginia, in command of its First Corps, out of which the Eleventh Corps, Army of the Potomac, was created. He relinquished the latter in January, 1863. On March 10, 1864, he succeeded Brigadier-General B. F. Kelley in the command of the Department of West Virginia, but after the defeat at New Market, May 15th, he was relieved by Major-General Hunter and given the division at Harper's Ferry, where he successfully held out against Lieutenant-General Early. In July, 1864, he was relieved from his command, and he resigned from the army in May, 1865. After the war, he edited a German paper in Baltimore, and later was register and United States pension-agent in New York city. He was well known as a lecturer and editor of the New York Monthly, a German periodical. He died in New York city, August 21, 1902.
Cologne, Prussia, March 2, 1829, studying there in the gymnasium and later at the University of Bonn. He was engaged in the revolutionary movement in 1848, and was compelled to seek refuge in Switzerland. In 1852, he came to the United States and settled in Philadelphia, later going to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where he began the practice of law. Lincoln appointed him United States minister to Spain, but he resigned to take part in the Civil War. As brigadier-general of volunteers, he commanded a division of the First Corps, Army of Virginia, at Second Bull Run, and at Chancellorsville a division of the Eleventh Corps. At Gettysburg he had command, as major-general of volunteers, of the Eleventh Corps, temporarily, and again in January and February, 1864. At Chattanooga, he took an active part. In March, 1864, he was put in charge of a corps of instruction near Nashville, and at the close of the war was chief-ofstaff to Major-General Slocum in the Army of Georgia. He resigned from the volunteer service in May, 1865, and became a newspaper correspondent in Washington, and, in 1866, founded the Detroit Post. He was senator from Missouri (1869-1875), and Secretary of the Interior from 1877 to 1881, and editor of the New York Evening Post from 1881 to 1884. He was an enthusiastic advocate of civil-service reform and other political movements. He was a writer and speaker of note, and died in New York city, May 14, 1906.