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[248]

Second Corps—Army of Northern Virginia

On September 25, 1861, Major-General G. W. Smith was assigned to the command of the Second Corps, Army of the Potomac, which was organized to consist of all the troops not hitherto assigned to the First Corps. After October 22d, the force was known as the Second Division and contained five brigades. It numbered almost twenty thousand men, and passed into the Reserve, Second Division, and D. H. Hill's Division of the Army of Northern Virginia. Most of these troops finally came under the command of Lieutenant-General T. J. Jackson and became known as the Second Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia, after the battle of Antietam. After Jackson's death, Lieutenant-General R. S. Ewell succeeded to the corps, after it had been temporarily headed by Stuart and A. P. Hill. On May 30, 1863, two divisions were detached to enter the Third Army Corps. The corps was commanded by Lieutenant-General J. A. Early in the Shenandoah campaign of 1864, and in the closing months of the war around Petersburg, by Lieutenant-General John B. Gordon.


Major-General Gustavus Woodson Smith

(U. S.M. A. 1842) was born in Georgetown, Kentucky, January 1, 1822, and served in the Mexican War. He resigned from the army in 1854 to enter upon a Cuban expedition under Quitman, and afterward settled in New York City. At the outbreak of the Civil War he joined the Confederate forces at New Orleans, under Lovell. In September, 1861, he was appointed major-general and was given command of the Second Corps, Army of the Potomac, which was continued in the Army of Northern Virginia, until March 23, 1862, when he was put at the head of the Reserves. After Johnston was wounded at Fair Oaks, May 31st, Major-General Smith, who was leading the left wing, took command of the whole army, but was stricken by illness the following day and was succeeded by General Lee. In August, he took charge of the defenses of Richmond and was acting Secretary of War in November. In February, 1863, he resigned from the service, and on June 1, 1864, took command of the Georgia Militia. He was captured by Major-General J. H. Wilson at Marion in April, 1865. He died in New York, June 24, 1896.


Lieutenant-General, Richard Stoddert Ewell (U. S.M. A. 1840)

was born in Georgetown, District of Columbia, February 8, 1817, and served with distinction in the Mexican War. He joined the Confederate army in 1861, and was made major-general the following year. He fought as brigade and division commander with the Army of Northern Virginia, and was given command of the Second Corps after the death of Lieutenant-General T. J. Jackson, being made lieutenant-general in May, 1863. He was prominent in all its battles, and at Groveton he lost a leg. After June, 1864, when his corps was sent to the Shenandoah valley under Lieutenant-General J. A. Early, he was in command of the defenses of Richmond until the evacuation of that city. He died at Spring Hill, Tennessee, January 25, 1872.


Lieutenant-General Jubal Anderson Early

(U. S.M. A. 1837) was born in Franklin County, Virginia, November 3, 1816, and served in the Seminole War of 1837, after which he resigned to take up the practice of law. In the Mexican War, he served as major of Virginia volunteers, and at the outbreak of the Civil War he entered the Confederate army as colonel, rising to the rank of lieutenant-general in May, 1864. He commanded a brigade at Bull Run, was wounded at Williamsburg, and had a division at Antietam and afterward. He had temporary command of both the Second and Third corps, Army of Northern Virginia, during the Wilderness campaign, and in June, 1864, was sent with the Second Army Corps to the Shenandoah valley, whence he made his way to Washington and attacked the city on July 12th. His forces were finally routed at Cedar Creek, October 19th, by Sheridan. He was relieved of the command of the Trans-Alleghany Department in March, 1865, after a defeat by Custer. After the war he practised law. He refused to take the oath of allegiance to the United States, and died in Lynchburg, Virginia, March 2, 1894. He is recognized as one of the ablest of the Confederate generals.


Lieutenant-General John Brown Gordon

was born in Upson County, Georgia, February 6, 1832. He became a lawyer, but entered the Confederate service as lieutenant-colonel of an Alabama regiment, and rose to the rank of lieutenant-general before the close of the war. He was brigade and division commander in the Army of Northern Virginia, and was prominent in the Second Army Corps during Early's campaign in the Shenandoah valley. He was at the head of the Second Corps after January 31, 1865, and was in command of the left wing at the time of Lee's surrender. After the war, he became prominent in Georgia politics and was United States senator from that State, 1873-1880, and in 1891-1897.

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