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Army of Tennessee

The joining of the Army of Kentucky with the Army of the Mississippi, on November 20, 1862, was the origin of the Army of Tennessee—the great Confederate army of the West. There were three corps and a division of cavalry, with an effective total of forty-seven thousand. General Braxton Bragg was in command. This army fought the battle of Stone's River, went through the Tullahoma campaign, and fought the battle of Chickamauga, assisted by Longstreet's Corps from the Army of Northern Virginia. It was driven from Chattanooga in November, 1863, by Grant's forces. After the battle of Chickamauga, the corps were reorganized several times. Bragg was removed from the command on December 2, 1863, and until General Johnston assumed it, on December 27th, both Hardee and Polk were in temporary command. Polk was sent to the Department of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana before the end of December. The army spent the winter around Dalton, Georgia, and faced Sherman's advance in May, 1864, in two infantry and one cavalry corps. Polk brought back his divisions, which he called the Army of Mississippi, and these forces were consolidated with the Army of Tennessee on July 26th, after Polk had been killed. On July 18th, Johnston was replaced by General John B. Hood. After the capture of Atlanta, the army returned to Tennessee, and, failing to cut off Major-General Schofield's command at Franklin, was routed by Major-General Thomas at Nashville (December 15-16, 1864). In February, 1865, General Johnston was again placed in command of the Army of Tennessee, as well as the troops in South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. The army had greatly dwindled. Lieutenant-General A. P. Stewart was at the actual head of the Army of Tennessee after March 16th, and Johnston's enlarged command included troops from the far South under Hardee, which, in February, had been organized in a corps, and those in North Carolina under Bragg. The aggregate present of the old Army of Tennessee was about twenty thousand. The army surrendered to Sherman in North Carolina, April 26, 1865.


General Braxton Bragg (U. S.M. A. 1837)

was born in Warren County, North Carolina, March 22, 1817, and served in the Seminole and Mexican wars. He resigned from the army in 1859, and became an extensive planter in Louisiana. On the secession of Louisiana, he was made a brigadier-general in the Confederate provisional army, and was the first commander of the military forces of Louisiana. After being appointed major-general in September, he took command of the forces in Alabama and West Florida from October, 1861, to February, 1862. He commanded the right wing of the Army of the Mississippi at Shiloh, and was made general after the death of Albert Sidney Johnston. He succeeded Beauregard as commander of the Army of the Mississippi (or Tennessee), and led it into Kentucky in September, 1862, and after his retreat therefrom, was defeated by Rosecrans at Stone's River (January, 1863). He in turn defeated Rosecrans at Chickamauga, but was driven from Chattanooga by Grant in November, 1863. Bragg was now relieved of the Army of Tennessee, and, later, was given control of the Confederate army's military operations at Richmond. As commander of the Department of North Carolina, he failed in attempts to check Sherman and prevent the fall of Wilmington. After February, 1865, he cooperated with Johnston and surrendered with the latter. Later on, he was state engineer of Alabama, and died in Galveston, Texas, September 27, 1876.


General John Bell Hood (U. S.M. A. 1853)

was born in Owingsville, Kentucky, June 1, 1831. and fought against the Comanche Indians in Texas. He resigned from the army in April, 1861, to enter the Confederate service. After serving as captain in the cavalry and colonel of a Texas regiment, he received the appointment of brigadier-general in March, 1862. He was made major-general in October, 1862, after taking a conspicuous part in the Virginia campaigns. At Gettysburg, he commanded the largest division in Longstreet's Corps. In September, he went to Tennessee with Longstreet's Corps, which he commanded at Chickamauga, where he lost a leg. After the battle, he was given the rank of lieutenant-general, and at the head of the Second Corps in the Army of Tennessee, took part in the Atlanta campaign from May to July 18, 1864, when he succeeded Johnston in the command of the army with the temporary rank of general. He lost Atlanta, and, returning to Tennessee, was driven into Alabama by Major-General Thomas in the middle of December. In January, 1865, he was relieved of his command and was ordered to Richmond. After the war, he went to New Orleans, where he died, August 30, 1879.

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