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[48] supplies at Holly Springs and compelled General Grant to subsist his Army of thirty thousand men upon the country for two weeks, his communications with his rear being severed at the same time by Forrest's enterprising Confederate cavalry. Grant was preparing to move against Vicksburg at the time, and the surrender of that place, July 4, 1863, followed a march overland to its rear from Bruinsburg, April 30, 1863, without supplies for his troops, other than those obtained from the country as he advanced, Grant carrying no personal baggage himself but a toothbrush. Sherman, who protested most vigorously against this hazardous movement, nevertheless later on applied the lesson it taught him when on his march to the sea, in 1864, he broke through the hollow shell of the Confederacy and closed it in from the South, while Grant advanced from the North, and crushed the armies of Lee and Johnston.

the surrender of the Southern armies in April and May, 1865, put an end to military activities, to be succeeded by the contests in the forum of political discussion; the death of Lincoln and the succession of Johnson following so immediately upon the surrender of Lee threw the whole question of the readjustment of political relations between the North and the South into chaos. In spite of his desire and his effort to keep within the limitations of his military function, General Grant found himself involved in the embittered contests of the reconstruction period, with which he was not fitted to deal either by temperament or training.

the politicians and the political activities of the North had, during the four years of war, been a constant source of embarrassment to our soldiers striving to conduct war with sole reference to success in the field. This had intensified the soldier's natural distrust of politicians and political methods, and Grant had never learned the art of which Lincoln was the supreme master—that of utilizing the selfish ambitions of men to accomplish great patriotic and public purposes.

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