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[86] and the Southern points of view, did not fully comprehend the forces which for years had been driving the sections apart.

When Louisiana seceded, Sherman announced publicly what was already generally known—that he would not remain at the seminary; that he would take no part against the United States. It is said that he wept bitterly when he heard of the withdrawal of South Carolina. One of the strongest arguments against secession was, in his opinion, the geographic one. Familiar with all the Southern country, especially the Mississippi valley, he insisted that Nature itself had already decided the question against secession and that the South ought to struggle within the Union for redress of grievances. He believed that the South, though itself at fault, was aggrieved. He could not be prevailed upon to remain, and in February, 1861, he left the seminary and the State.

Sherman at once went to Washington where he found the politicians busy, and as they and Lincoln were ‘too radical’ to suit him, he left, profanely declaring that ‘the politicians have got the country into this trouble; now let them get it out.’ For two months he was president of a street-railway company in St. Louis, and while here he was a witness of the division of Missouri into hostile camps. He watched the North while it gradually made up its mind to fight, and then he offered his services to the War Department, and was appointed colonel of the Thirteenth United States Infantry.

Sherman's military career falls into four rather distinct parts: The Manassas, or Bull Run, campaign, and Kentucky, in 1861; the Shiloh-Corinth campaign, in 1862; the opening of the Mississippi, in 1863; the campaigns in Georgia and the Carolinas, in 1864-65. During the first two years, he was making mistakes, getting experience, and learning his profession. In the third campaign, his military reputation was made secure, and in the last one he crushed half the Confederacy mainly by his destructive marches.

At Bull Run, or Manassas, he commanded a brigade with

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