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[270] branch of the royal family, Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern, should never again be a candidate for the throne of Spain. The great and unquestioned ability of Louis Napoleon was deemed evidence that all things were duly weighed, and that his organization and preparations were at least complete. The French army numbered some 350,000 trained soldiers. The population of France was 38,067,064, in relation to which, says the president of the legislative body to the Emperor, as he was about to depart for the frontier: “Behind you, behind our army accustomed to carry the noble flag of France, stands the whole nation, ready to recruit it.”

On the other side, Prussia had a population of some twenty-four millions, or, including the North German Confederation (of which she is a part) of some thirty millions. Her standing army numbered less than 400,000. To what was due, then, the astounding results of that conquest, for the world was prepared for a gigantic and not unequal combat? Why, in the short space of six months, do we witness a Sedan, with a capitulation by McMahon of 90,000 men? a Metz, with a surrender of nearly 200,000 by Bazaine? a Strasburg, giving up 17,000 soldiers? and speedily the fall of Paris, with a war indemnity to be paid the victors of five milliards of francs? Why such a series of victories for Germany, such inglorious defeats for France? Why such a rapid fall of the curtain upon such a striking tableau vivant? We trace it to the weakness and inefficiency of the military organization of France, and to the wisdom of the system which gave the preponderating power of the reserves to Germany — the marvellous comprehensive military method that brings, at the tap of the drum, thousands of drilled, disciplined men to the support of the main body, as opposed to a conscription or enlistment of raw levies from the population at large.

King William and Von Moltke strongly felt the hand of Shamhorst, who undertook the reorganization of the military resources of Prussia after Jena in 1806--an honor in our war which such leaders as Albert Sydney Johnson, Lee, Johnston, Beauregard and Jackson must share with a Cooper. It is the astute, clear, calm and penetrating minds of Shamhorst and Cooper, whose judgment and masterly ability quietly plan, arrange and direct the machinery which is to be put in motion by the brilliant army chieftains, such as I have mentioned, that wins success.

General Samuel Cooper possessed an inheritable right to his enviable eminence.

From Dorsetshire, England, his great grandfather came, and settled

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