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[551] the town they are merged into one, which crosses Marye's hill some fifty yards north of the house, runs south to Salem church, six miles, where they separate, the Old turnpike being the right hand or more northern road. At Chancellorsville, twelve miles from Fredericksburg, they unite and continue the same road until Wilderness church is reached beyond — when they again separate, the Plank road running as before to the south. The Wilderness tavern is some miles further on towards Orange Courthouse on the Old turnpike, and some miles further on this road is crossed by Wilderness run, and here comes in the road from Germanna ford, on the Rapidan. The direct road from Kelly's ford on the Rappahannock to Chancellorsville crosses the Rapidan at Ely's ford.

By keeping this imperfect topographical description in view, it will facilitate a better understanding of the strategical and tactical operations of the opposing armies; for participation in battles, unless as a commander of rank, will give but little knowledge of localities, such knowledge being in inverse ratio to the closeness of your discharge of military duties.

Before dawn on the 11th of December the Confederate signal gun announced that Burnside's army was in motion. Two days and two nights were consumed in getting the Federal soldiers over a river three hundred yards wide, spanned by four pontoon bridges, the laying down of which was resisted by the Thirteenth, Seventeenth, Eighteenth and Twenty-first Mississippi regiments, comprising Barksdale's splendid brigade of McLaws' division, and the Third Georgia and Eighth Florida, of R. H. Anderson's division. With these six small regiments Barksdale held the Federal army at the river bank for sixteen hours, giving the Confederate commander ample time to prepare for battle (Longstreet's report).

The Federal army was divided into three grand divisions, the right under Sumner, the centre under Hooker, the left under Franklin. Sixty thousand troops and one hundred and sixteen cannon were under Franklin, opposing our right near Hamilton's crossing; he having Burns' division from the Ninth corps, of Sumner's command, and two divisions of Stoneman's corps, of Hooker's. Sumner had about twenty-seven thousand of his own and about twenty-six thousand of Hooker's troops, with one hundred and four cannon (Hunt's report), attacking our right at Marye's hill, making a grand total that Burnside had of 113,000 (his report); he had also one hundred and fifty-seven heavy guns in reserve. Burnside lost in killed, wounded and missing 12,353 (his report), and failing to


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Sumner (3)
Old Joe Hooker (3)
Burnside (3)
W. B. Franklin (2)
Barksdale (2)
Stoneman (1)
Lafayette McLaws (1)
J. Longstreet (1)
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J. D. Burns (1)
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