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[452] sense, a government of the people, by the people, and for the people; but the people of the United States, as one politically sovereign community, never yet, by deputies or otherwise, framed any form of government, nor put it into execution, nor amended such form, nor did they ever yet elect a President of the United States, nor declare war, nor make peace, nor ever perform any political act whatever.

Extracts from and the substance of portions of the five acts of Congress specially referred to in the foregoing paper.

The Act of July 4, 1789.--Its title is: “An act for laying a duty on goods, wares and merchandise imported into the United States.”

Sections 1st and 2d specify various duties which are, “from and after the first day of August next,” to be levied on a vast number of enumerated goods, and discriminating as to the amounts of the duties to be paid in favor of goods imported in ships owned by citizens of the United States.

Sections 3d and 4th provide for the payment by Government to importers of goods of drawbacks on certain imports, which shall be exported from the United States within twelve months from the date of their importation.

Section 5th allows a discount to citizens of the United States importing goods in their own vessels of ten cent. on the duties imposed by this act. This discount is not allowed to other persons.

Section 6th provides for the operation of the act up to June, 1796, and to the termination of the next session of Congress thereafter.

No countries besides the United States are mentioned by name in this act, except China and India.

The Act of July 20, 1789.--Its title is: “An act imposing duties on tonnage.”

Section 1st imposes a duty of six cents per ton on ships wholly owned by a citizen or citizens of the United States; but on ships built in the United States, but belonging “wholly or in part to subjects of foreign powers,” thirty cents per ton. “All other ships or vessels [i. e., not built in the United States and owned by citizens thereof], fifty cents per ton.”

Section 2d provides that ships built and owned in the United States shall be required to pay tonnage only once a year while engaged in the fisheries or in the coastwise trade.

Section 3d provides that every ship engaged in the coastwise trade which was not built and owned in the United States shall pay fifty cents per ton on each entry.

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