The Artillery on the Gettysburg campaign.
Report of Major Latimer.
Headquarters Andrews's Artillery battalion, June 25th, 1863.Major,--I hereby beg leave to submit the following report of the operations of this battalion in the recent engagements around Winchester.  On the morning of the 13th June we marched at 4 o'clock A. M. with Johnson's division from our encampment at Cedarville on the Front Royal and Winchester pike, Captain Carpenter's battery, Lieutenant Lambie commanding, being detached, and following the front brigade under immediate direction of Lieutenant-Colonel Andrews. This battery arrived in sight of Winchester about 12 o'clock M. Had it proceeded directly up the road it would have been subjected to the fire of a battery stationed on the right of the pike, and on an eminence between the first house on the right of the road, and an encampment which the enemy had just vacated. Therefore Colonel Andrews moved Carpenter's battery through the woods to the left of the road, reaching an open field enclosed by a stone wall, which somewhat protected the guns. The battery came into action under fire, and in a few minutes by their well-directed shots drove off the enemy's battery as well as the supporting infantry, both retreating rapidly towards the town--one of the enemy's limbers having been exploded, thereby killing three men — others having been killed and wounded by the firing. During the engagement Carpenter's battery lost one man killed and one wounded, and three horses disabled. Dement's First Maryland battery, which was not engaged, but exposed to the fire, lost one man killed. Carpenter's battery was, for some time after this, exposed to a severe fire from heavy batteries which the enemy had posted on the heights to the left of the town, but which we could not reach. Later in the evening, when General Early advanced on the left, some of the enemy's infantry in retreating became exposed to view, when I ordered Lieutenant Lambie to open upon them with his two rifle guns, which he did with effect, very much accelerating their speed. This drew upon the battery a severe fire from the enemy's batteries, posted as before described, without any damage however, except the loss of one or two horses. After night the battery was withdrawn and parked with the remainder of the battalion. None of the batteries of the battalion were again engaged during that day or the next, the enemy having retired within his works, and our lines not being advanced on that part of the field which we occupied. The battalion remained quietly in park behind a sheltering hill near the Front Royal road. On the evening of the 14th, about dark, in accordance with orders from General Johnson, Dements' First Maryland battery, four Napoleons, a rifle section belonging to Raine's battery, under command of Captain Raine, and a section of Carpenter's battery (rifle guns), under command of Lieutenant Lambie, were taken by Colonel Andrews, with  two brigades of Johnson's Division (Steuarts and Nichols), all under the command of General Johnson, and moved across the country to the road leading from the Winchester and Martinsburg pike to Charlestown, by Jordan Springs, striking it at a point about four miles from the Martinsburg pike, about 3 o'clock A. M., and moving towards that pike. The remainder of the battalion had been left under my command in front of Winchester. The batteries under command of Colonel Andrews were marching closed up on the infantry, and the first intimation of the presence of an enemy was given by rapid firing of musketry, indicating skirmishing at the head of the column. The battalion was halted immediately. The first gun of Dement's First Maryland battery, which was in front, being at this time within about two hundred yards of the burnt depot, was ordered forward by Colonel Andrews, under direction of General Johnson, and having arrived at the burnt depot was halted. In the meantime the infantry was formed to the right and left of the road by which they had been marching, along the line of the Winchester and Harper's Ferry railroad. The firing had ceased, and the remainder of the battalion was ordered into park in the woods to the right of the road at the burnt depot. Before getting into park, however, Colonel Andrews by direction of General Johnson ordered forward the gun which was in advance, bringing it into position in the road near the bridge across the railroad, upon which it was subsequently moved. The left gun of the same section was brought into position on the left of the road by the same orders. Skirmishers had been sent out from our lines, and quite rapid firing had begun. The two guns could not fire, our skirmishers being in the way. The skirmishers were, however, quickly driven back by the enemy, who followed them. The two guns mentioned then opened upon them with canister. They were severely engaged with infantry at short range, until the close of the action, about one and a half hours, not changing their position, and driving the enemy back frequently. Shortly after these guns had been put into position the remainder of the batallion was posted by Colonel Andrews's orders along the edge of the wood to the left of the road. They became immediately engaged though at longer range than the first two guns, except Lieutenant Lambie's section of Carpenter's battery which, shortly after getting into position, was by direction of Colonel Andrews, taken to a position about two hundred yards to the right of the road, to protect against a flank movement. About half an hour after Lieutenant Stonestreet with left section of Dement's battery was ordered by Colonel Andrews  to the support of Lieutenant Lambie. A body of the enemy's infantry and cavalry being seen moving to the left of our position, Colonel Andrews directed Captain Raine to move his section about two hundred yards to the left and rear of his position, which he did, firing at right angles with his former line of fire with good effect. Shortly thereafter one of his guns, by order of General Johnson was taken down the road towards Jordan springs to intercept a body of the enemy who were retreating in that direction. The enemy seeing this gun before it had been put in position, several hundred of them surrendered to about seven of our infantrymen. About the same time Lieutenant Lambie's section and one gun of Captain Dement's which were on the right of the road, not having had occasion to fire, were moved by direction of Colonel Andrews about one-half mile to the rear of our left, to fire upon the body of infantry and cavalry above spoken of, which Captain Raine's guns had not succeeded in arresting. The result was to scatter them in every direction thus making them an easy prey to our infantry. The action at this time was pretty well over, the enemy's line being broken at nearly every point, and in order to complete the rout, Colonel Andrews was making preparations to charge with one of the sections of Dements's battery through the shattered lines of the enemy and open upon his rear, when he was struck in the arm by a shot from a lingering sharpshooter which gave him a severe, but not serious flesh wound. A short time afterwards the action was closed, the greater part of the enemy surrendering, the remainder having fled. The conduct of the batteries on this occasion was most creditable, eliciting by the effect with which they were handled by their commanders, the admiration of all beholders. It will be seen that they were several times moved while under fire (always a difficult matter), and the celerity with which these movements were made showed the ability of the battery commanders and the efficiency of their commands. Captain Raines's battery, though exposed to a severe infantry fire, suffered no loss except having three horses disabled. Sergeants East, Eads and Milstead, are mentioned as having made themselves conspicuous for coolness and fine service rendered, having acted as gunners in addition to their duties as chiefs of pieces. The conduct of the officers, non-commissioned officers and men serving the right section of Captain Dement's battery, cannot be spoken of in terms of praise sufficiently high. The stern determination with which they stood up to their guns is proven by the fact that the gun at the bridge was worked with terrible effect until six men were disabled, and on account of the  difficult position which the gun occupied the two cannoniers which were left were unable to work it. Finding the other gun's detachment becoming weak, the Sergeant and Corporal with the two men went over to its assistance. In a few minutes the latter detachment had suffered as great loss as the former, but owing to the superiority of the ground the gun could be worked with diminished numbers. The loss in Captain Dement's battery was two killed and thirteen wounded, among the wounded Lieutenant Contee and Sergeant Glascock. This loss was confined to the two guns above spoken of, except in the case of one of the men killed, which was done on Saturday when not engaged. Sixteen horses were also killed and disabled, fifteen of these being in the same section. I desire to bring to your immediate notice on this occasion the names of Lieutenant C. S. Contee, commanding the section, Sergeant Harris, Corporals Compton and Thompson, of the first gun; Sergeant Glascock and Corporal May, of second gun. Captain Carpenter's battery, under command of Lieutenant Lambie, was served in the most efficient manner, both on the day on which we arrived in front of Winchester and the 15th instant. The Lieutenant finds difficulty in making any distinctions, but mentions Sergeant-Major Benjamin Karnes as having been in command of a section and having rendered excellent service. Captain Brown's battery was not engaged at any time. It is useless for me to speak of the commanders of the batteries engaged. Their known skill and gallantry, as proven on every battlefield, makes it unnecessary to speak of them on this particular occasion. I am, Major, very respecfully, your obedient servant,
Report of Major McIntosh.
Colonel:--I have the honor to submit the following report, as called for, “of the operations of this battalion since leaving Fredericksburg,” June 15, 1863. The command was moved from the latter place by way of Culpeper Courthouse, Front Royal, Shepherdstown, &c., to Cashtown, Penn., without incident worthy of special note. On the morning of Wednesday, July 1st, it moved with General Pender's division into the line of battle. One battery of Napoleon's (Captain Rice), and a section  of Whitworth's, was placed first in position a short distance to the right of the turnpike, by the side of a portion of Major Pegram's battalion, and fire was opened slowly upon the enemy, whenever they brought into view considerable bodies of troops, and occasionally upon their batteries. The Whitworth guns were used to shell the woods to the right of the town. After a short interval Captain Johnson's battery, and the remaining section of Captain Hurt's were placed on a commanding hill, some distance to the right, near the Fairfield road, at or near which point they remained during the first days' action without any occasion for an active participation, though frequently under fire. The remaining battery of the command under Lieutenant Wallace was also placed in position near the Cashtown Pike, and contributed its portion of work. The artillery fire on both sides was occasionally brisk, but deliberate on our part. At the time General Powell's batteries occupied the enemy's attention I opened on them a flank fire, which caused them to leave the position in haste, a fine opportunity was also afforded at this time of enfilading a heavy column of the enemy. Infantry formed in the railroad cut, and along a line of fence, which was employed to advantage by my batteries, in connection with Major Pegram's, and the enemy entirely discomfited disappeared from the field. Previous to this time I had advanced two of my batteries to the intervening hollow, and followed close upon the enemy as he left the hills. No further movement was made during the day — the casualties being one man killed of Captain Johnson's, and one wounded of Captain Rice's by premature explosion, and several horses disabled. On Thursday morning, July 2d, the battallion was put in position behind a stone wall on the range of hills to the left of the town of Gettysburg, Captain Rice's battery in reserve. The enemy opened upon the spot at various times throughout the two succeeding days a terrible artillery fire accompanied with a galling fire of musketry from their sharpshooters. Our line remained quiet until a movement forward being made by the first corps a few rounds was fired by us to draw the enemy's attention which never failed to do so. The firing in the afternoon became extremely warm and continued, and resulted in considerable loss, Lieutenants Tullis and Ferrell, of Hurt's battery, being wounded. Two guns were disabled on the first day's action, one 3-in. rifle, Lieutenant Wallace's, being struck upon its face, which was sent to the rear with the wagon; and one Whitworth having had an axle broken. The latter was taken to Major Duffie's train and repaired. The two Whitworth guns were moved Friday morning, by direction  of Lieutenant-General A. P. Hill, to a commanding point north of the railroad cut, to enable them to enfilade the enemy's position; they fired it is believed with effect from this point. In the afternoon it was reported to me that the gun formerly disabled had broken its axle again, this time from its own firing. I immediately ordered it to be sent back to the rear for repairs, and learning the next morning that the gun was on the road and could not be hauled along, I sent Captain Hurt to superintend it himself; he succeded in getting it repaired and followed with it by the route of the wagon train, leaving the rear part of his caisson somewhere on the road. Captain Hurt rejoined me at Hagerstown, the horses belonging to that gun being completely broken down and knocked up. The day of the third witnessed in great measure a repetition of the second. Previous to the charge of our men a general fire of artillery commenced on the right and extended along the left. The bombardment was replied to with equal spirit by the enemy, but their fire in time slackened, and when the charge was made by our men had almost entirely ceased. During the two days engagement, and especially the terrific bombardment of the third, it gives me pleasure to speak of the general good conduct of officers and men of this command, and I am proud to say, that occupying a good position for observation, not a single case came under my notice when anyone flinched from the post of danger. Where all behaved so well, it is difficult to draw distinctions; yet, being nearest the company of Lieutenant Wallace, I can bear especial testimony to the coolness and gallantry of himself and men. I cannot forbear also paying a tribute to the handsome conduct of my Ordnance officer, Lieutenant Houston, who exposed himself frequently to the hotest fire and assisted in working at one of the guns. Saturday, the 4th, the same position was maintained with but little firing, and on the afternoon of that day, under orders from General Hill, I withdrew to Stone Bridge and awaited there the body of the corps, with which I moved to the village of Fairfield. Ordered here to report to General Anderson with two batteries, which I did, moving with his division, crossed the mountain before dark, leaving a section on the top, at the Emmitsburg road, and sending a battery at night with a regiment of Posey's brigade, to take position on the hill overlooking Waynesboro. Monday, the 5th, moved with the main column to Hagerstown and sent one battery to picket with Anderson's and one with Lane's division. On the 11th instant moved with General Anderson's division into  line of battle, and took position designated near St. James College, which strong of itself, was well entrenched, but occupied without battle till the evening of the 13th, when I withdrew at dark by your order, moving to Williamsport and thence to Falling Waters, over the worst road and during the worst night of the season. The river was reached and crossed in safety about 9 A. M., the caissons having been sent on before under Lieutenant Price, who conveyed them all safely to camp, about a mile and a half from the river. The Whitworth guns, under Captain Hurt, were put in position near the bridge by General Pendleton, and several shots were fired from them at columns of the enemy's cavalry. Captain Hart, withdrawing by another road, rejoined the battalion at Bunker Hill. From Bunker Hill the battalion moved with General Anderson's division to Culpeper Courthouse. Annexed is a statement of casualties with amount of ammunition expended:
The horses, from the battle of Gettysburg to the time of reaching Culpeper Courthouse, received no corn, subsisting entirely upon grass with a little sheaf oats and wheat.
Ammunition expended in battle:
|Casualties in men killed and wounded||24|
|Horses disabled and killed||38|
|Rounds of Napoleon||213|
|Rounds of 3-inch rifle||1,049|
|Rounds of Whitworth||133|