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[253] states that withdrew from the Union, whose restoration was to be effected on this rotten system, in addition to several constitutional amendments, the adoption of which was to be effected and secured by the votes of these groundless fabrications, in which a fiction was to be considered as good as the truth. Having attained all these facts which are yet to be stated, he may begin to form some estimate of the remnants of the Constitution, and of the probable existence of any true union of the states.

To proceed with the narration: under the above-mentioned proclamation of the President of the United States, Major General Banks issued at New Orleans, on January 11, 1864, a proclamation for an election of state officers, and for members of a state constitutional convention. The state officers, when elected, were to constitute, as the proclamation said, ‘the civil government of the State under the Constitution and laws of Louisiana, except so much of the said Constitution and laws as recognize, regulate, or relate to slavery, which, being inconsistent with the present condition of public affairs, and plainly inapplicable to any class of persons now existing within its limits, must be suspended.’ The number of votes given for state officers was 10,270. The population of the state in 1860 was 708,902. The so-called governor-elect was inaugurated on March 4th, and on March 11th he was invested with the powers hitherto exercised by the military governor for the President of the United States. On the same day Major General Banks issued an order relative to the election of delegates to a so-called state convention. The most important provisions of it defined the qualifications of voters. The delegates were elected entirely within the army lines of the forces of the United States. The so-called convention assembled and adopted a so-called constitution, declaring ‘instantaneous, universal, uncompensated, unconditional emancipation of slaves.’ The meager vote on the constitution was, for its adoption, 6,836; for its rejection, 1,566. The vote of New Orleans was, yeas 4,664, nays 789. This state of affairs continued after the close of the war. Violent disputes arose as to the validity of the so-called constitution. The so-called legislature elected under it adopted Article XIII as an amendment to the Constitution of the United States, prohibiting the existence of slavery in the United States.

It will be seen from these facts that the state of Louisiana was not a republican state instituted by the consent of the governed; that its legislature was an unconstitutional body, without any ‘just powers,’ and that the vote which it gave for the amendment of the Constitution of the United States was no vote at all, for it was given by a body that had no authority to give it, because it had no ‘just powers’ whatever. Yet

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