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[513] opponents, it is only necessary to offer two facts: first, the report of the Secretary of War, E. M. Stanton, made on July 19, 1866, shows that, of all the prisoners in our hands during the war, only 22,576 died, while, of the prisoners in our opponent's hands, 26,246 died; second, the official report of Surgeon General Barnes, an officer of the United States government, states that, in round numbers, the number of Confederate States prisoners in their hands amounted to 220,000, the number of United States prisoners in our hands amounted to 270,000. Thus, out of the 270,000 in our hands, 22,000 died—while of the 220,--000 of our soldiers in their hands, 26,000 died. Thus, more than twelve per cent of the prisoners in our opponents' hand died, and less than nine per cent of the prisoners in our hands died.

When, in this connection, it is remembered that our resources were greatly reduced, that our supply of medicines required in summer diseases was exhausted, and that Northern men when first residing at the South must undergo acclimation, and that these conditions in the Northern states were the reverse in each particular—the fact that greater mortality existed in Northern than in Southern prisons can be accounted for only by the kinder treatment received in the latter. To present the case in a sentence—we did the best we could for those whom the fortune of war had placed at our mercy; the enemy, in the midst of plenty, inflicted cruel, wanton deprivation on our soldiers who fell within his power.

In regard to the failure in the exchange of prisoners, General B. F. Butler has irrefutably fixed the responsibility on the government at Washington and on General Grant. The obstacles thus thrown in the way were not only persistently interposed, but artfully designed to be insurmountable.

On the other hand the Confederate government, through Colonel Ould, its commissioner of exchanges, sought by all practicable means to execute the obligations of the cartel, and otherwise to relieve the suffering of prisoners kept in confinement; through a delegation of the Federal prisoners at Andersonville, it sought to attract the notice of their government to their sufferings; finally, confiding in the chivalry characteristic of soldiers, it sought, through General Lee, to make an arrangement with General Grant for the exchange of all the prisoners held in their respective commands, and as many more as General Grant could add in response to all held by the Confederate government.1

1 For full and exact information, compiled from official records and other documents, the reader is referred to Treatment of Prisoners, by J. William Jones, D. D., and to The Southern Side: or Andersonville Prison, (compiled from official documents) by R. Randolph Stevenson, M. D.

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