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[612] powers necessary ‘to restore the State to its constitutional relations with the Federal Government.’ It was further provided that no person should vote unless he had taken the amnesty oath mentioned on a previous page, and was a qualified voter previous to the secession of the state. The convention or the subsequent legislature was to prescribe the qualification of all voters afterward—‘a power,’ says the President, ‘the people of the several States composing the Federal Union have rightfully exercised from the origin of the Government to the present time.’ The proclamation then continued: ‘And I do hereby direct: first, that the military commander of the department and all officers and persons in the military and naval service aid and assist the said provisional government in carrying into effect this proclamation; and they are enjoined to abstain from in any way hindering, impeding, or discouraging “loyal” people from the organization of a State government as herein authorized.’ The proclamation closed with instructions to the secretary of each department of the government to proceed to put in operation his department within the limits of the state.

The first movement for the restoration of the Confederate States to the Union under subjugation was commenced in Virginia. Richmond was occupied by the forces of the United States government, and the authority of all state officers elected during the war was annulled. Affairs remained in this position until May 9, 1865, when the President of the United States issued an order declaring all the acts and proceedings of the political, military, and civil organizations in the state which had been in insurrection against the United States to be null and void; that all persons who should attempt to exercise any authority as under the late state or Confederate officers, should be deemed and taken as in rebellion, etc. At this time Francis H. Pierpont, who had assumed to exercise the office of governor of Virginia over ten counties around Alexandria, was recognized by the President as the true governor of the state. He was aided in removing the seat of his government from Alexandria to Richmond, and in maintaining it here, by the military force. No hostile oposition, however, was anywhere manifested, while at Alexandria delegates from the ten counties had assembled in convention and assumed to amend the state constitution, and the little socalled legislative body had undertaken to pass various acts of importance. The so-called governor, in presenting a summary of them, concluded by saying, ‘Thus, State sovereignty—the status of the African race—the armed resistance to the Government of the United States —are disposed of.’ An election for a new legislature and state officers

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