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[641] whose jurisdiction extended to the life of the accused. In capital cases he might well change places with the criminal, for, if the latter had unlawfully taken life, so too did the judge.

In another district, a military order commanded the nominal governor of the state to forbid the assembling of the legislature, and thus suspended the proper legislative power of the state. In the same district an order was issued ‘to relieve the Treasurer of the State from the duties, bond, books, papers, etc., appertaining to his office,’ and to put an ‘assistant quartermaster of the United States Volunteers’ in place of the removed treasurer. The duties of this quartermaster treasurer were thus summed up: he was to make to the headquarters of the district ‘the same reports and returns required from the Treasurer, and a monthly statement of the receipts and expenditures; he will pay all warrants for salaries which may be or become due, and legitimate expenditures for the support of the Penitentiary, State Asylum, and the support of the provisional State government; but no scrip or warrants for outstanding debts, of other kind than those specified, will be paid without special authority from these headquarters. He will deposit funds in the same manner as though they were those of the United States.’ These instances will suffice, although many more might be related.

Illegal, unjust, and vindictive as were these gross usurpations of the Congress of the United States in their immediate results, the consequences which followed were still more disastrous. When the late Confederate states were restored to representation in Congress, a large portion of their white citizens remained disfranchised, and the political power of each was in the hands of the blacks and the remnant of the whites. Nor was the military force withdrawn, but it was placed in convenient localities, under the pretext of maintaining order, but in reality to sustain the new rulers. It must be manifest that the sovereignty of the people was now extinct, and those ruled who had the bayonets on their side. With the disfranchised were the intelligence, the virtue, and the political experience; with the voters were the ignorance, the lawless passions, and soon a body of political adventurers from the Northern states, greedy for power and plunder. These quickly won for themselves the distinctive epithet of ‘carpet-baggers.’ The governments under the control of such popular sovereigns demonstrated the vindictiveness rather than wisdom of Congress, and soon brought forth their natural fruits of anarchy, fraud, and crime. One or two examples must suffice in which to exhibit these results.

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