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‘ [506] United States,’ as provided in section 5298 of the Revised Statutes, the troops are employed as a part of the military power of the United States, and act under the orders of the President, as commander-in-chief, and his military subordinates. They cannot be directed to act under the orders of any civil officer. The commanding officers of the troops so employed are directly responsible to their military superiors. Any unlawful or unauthorized act on their part would not be excusable on the ground of any order or request received by them from a marshal or any other civil officer.

By command of Major-General Schofield:

Geo. D. Ruggles, Adjutant-General.

It appears to have been thought in Chicago that ‘the request of the United States marshal,’ with whom the commanding officer of the troops had been directed to ‘confer,’ was equivalent to ‘orders of the War Department,’ notwithstanding the order of May 25, above quoted, strictly prohibiting any such use of troops. Hence the faulty disposition of the troops which was corrected when the mob was approaching the heart of the city. Then ‘some of the troops on the outskirts of the city’ were withdrawn, and ‘in the evening the battery and one troop of cavalry’ were moved ‘to the Lake Front Park, for the purpose of attacking the mob should it reach the vicinity of the government building between Adams and Jackson sts.’ And during the afternoon and night of the 5th and morning of the 6th an effective force was concentrated on the Lake Front Park, forty-eight hours after the time when the orders from Washington indicated that the Fort Sheridan garrison should be at that place.

On July 9, the day after the President had issued his proclamation, it appeared in Chicago that ‘the duties of the military authorities are now clearly defined.’ The President's proclamation was ‘understood by the military to be in the interests of humanity,’ and to concern, in some way, ‘the State militia,’ as if they had been

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