Naval officer; born in London
, April 22, 1772; entered the royal navy in 1783, and was rear-admiral in 1812.
During the spring
of 1813 a most distressing warfare was carried on upon land and water by a British squadron, under his command, along the coasts between Delaware Bay
and Charleston Harbor
It was marked by many acts of cruelty.
“Chastise the Americans
into submission” was the substance of the order given to Cockburn
by the British
cabinet, and he seemed to be a willing servant of the will of his government.
An Order in Council, issued on Dec. 20, 1812, declared the ports and harbors of much of the American
coast in a state of blockade.
entered between the capes of Virginia
early in February, 1813, with a squadron, of which his flag-ship was the Marlborough
, seventy-four guns.
This squadron bore a land force of about 1,800 men, a part of them captive Frenchmen from British prisons, who preferred active life in the British
service to indefinite
confinement in jails.
The appearance of this force alarmed all lower Virginia
; and the militia of the Peninsula
and about Norfolk
were soon in motion after the squadron had entered Hampton Roads
The Secretary of the Treasury
ordered the extinguishment of all the beacon-lights on the Chesapeake coast
At the same time the frigate Constellation
, thirty-eight guns, lying at Norfolk
, was making ready to attack the British vessels.
A part of the British squadron went into Delaware Bay
, but the forewarned militia were ready for the marauders, who only attacked the village of Lewiston
On April 3, 1813, a flotilla of a dozen boats filled with armed men from the British fleet, under Lieutenant Polkingthorne
of the St. Domingo
, seventy-four guns, entered the Rappahannock River
and attacked the Baltimore
, ten guns, Captain Stafford
, and three armed schooners prepared to sail for France
The three smaller vessels were soon taken, but the struggle with the Dolphin
She was boarded, and for fifteen minutes a contest raged fearfully on her deck, when the Dolphin
struck her colors.
now went up the Chesapeake
with the brigs Fantome
, and the tenders Dolphin
, and Highflyer
, and proceeded to destroy Frenchtown
, a hamlet of about a dozen houses on the west coast of Delaware
made the Fantome
The only defenders of the hamlet were a few militia who came down from Elkton
, and some drivers of stages and transportation-wagons.
The former garrisoned a redoubt which had just been erected, upon which lay four iron cannon.
They were vanquished and retired.
The storehouses were plundered and burned, but the women and children were well treated.
Property on land worth $25,000 was destroyed, and on the water five trading-vessels were consumed.
went up the bay to Havre De Grace
(q. v.), at the mouth of the Susquehanna
, which he plundered and burned.
Afterwards he attacked the villages of Fredericktown
(May 6, 1813), on the Sassafras River
They contained from forty to fifty houses each.
He first visited Fredericktown
, on the north shore.
The militia, under Colonel Veazy
, made a stout resistance, but were compelled to retire.
The village was laid in ashes, and the storehouses were plundered and burned.
The marauders then crossed over to Georgetown
, and served it in the same way. Having deprived three villages on the Chesapeake
of property worth at least $70,000, Cockburn
returned to the fleet.
Early in July, 1813, Admiral Cockburn
, with a part of his marauding fleet, went southward from Hampton Roads
to plunder and destroy.
His vessels were the Sceptre
, seventy-four guns (flag-ship), Romulus
, and Nemesis
Off Ocracoke Inlet, he despatched (July 12, 1813) about 800 armed men in barges to the waters of Pamlico Sound
There they attacked the Anaconda
, two American privateers, and captured both.
The crew of one escaped, and gave the alarm at Newbern
The British boats proceeded to attack that place, but found it too well prepared to warrant their doing so. They captured Portsmouth
, and plundered the country around.
They decamped in haste (July 16), carrying with them cattle and other property, and many slaves, to whom they falsely promised their freedom.
These, and others obtained the same way, Cockburn
sold in the West Indies
on his private account.
Leaving Pamlico Sound, the marauders went down the coast, stopping at and plundering Dewees's and Capers's islands, and filling the whole region of the lower Santee
Informed of these outrages, the citizens of Charleston
prepared for the reception of the marauders.
and other fortifications were strengthened, breast-works were thrown up at exposed places.
and a body of militia was gathered at Point Pleasant
In anticipation of the coming of an army of liberation.
as they were falsely informed Cockburn
's men were, the negroes were prepared to rise and strike for freedom.
did not venture into Charleston Harbor
, but went down to Hilton Head
, from which he carried off slaves and cattle.
Then he visited the Georgia coast
, and at Dungenness House, the fine estate of Gen. Nathaniel Greene
, on Cumberland Island
, he made his headquarters for the winter, sending his marauders out in all directions to plunder the plantations on the neighboring coast.
He was concerned in the sack of Washington
in 1814, and in an unsuccessful attempt to capture Baltimore
in the same year.
He was knighted in 1815; made a major-general of marines in 1821; and died in London
, Aug. 19. 1853.