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Originally a freebooter; subsequently applied to one who delayed legislation by dilatory motions or similar artifices. Narcisco Lopez with an expedition of armed men sailed from New Orleans, Aug. 3, 1851, and landed near Havana on the 11th. Unable to bring about a rise of the people he was obliged to surrender and on Sept. 1, 1851, was garroted at Havana. Colonel Crittenden, who was associated with Lopez, was also captured and with fifty others was shot at Havana, Aug. 16, 1851. William Walker led a filibustering expedition into Lower California in 1853, but was obliged to retreat and surrendered to the United States authorities of Santiago. He was tried under the neutrality laws and acquitted May 15, 1854. The next year Walker was invited to Nicaragua by one of the local factions. He landed on the Pacific coast of Nicaragua, May 4, 1855, and defeated the Nicaraguans in a battle at Virgin Bay, Sept. 1, 1855. Walker forced his election as President of Nicaragua, but on May 1, 1857, he surrendered to the United States sloop-of-war Mary and was taken to New Orleans. In November of that year he again invaded Nicaragua, but was compelled to surrender to the United States frigate Wabash. On Aug. 5, 1860, Walker again landed at Truxillo, Honduras, but after short successes was eventually defeated, captured, tried, and shot Oct. 12, 1860.

For many years prior to the American-Spanish War quite a number of filibustering expeditions were fitted out in the United States for the purpose of operating on Cuba. The United States government invariably issued official warning against such hostile actions against Spain, and in a majority of cases intercepted or otherwise prevented the landing of the parties. The most notable of these actions was that of a party which left in the Cuban warship Virginius, Oct. 8, 1873, for Cuba. The vessel, under command of Capt. James Fry, was captured by a Spanish war steamer on the 31st, and the officers and 175 volunteers were taken to Santiago, where in the following month Captain Fry and 109 of his associates were shot for piracy. Through the action of the United States government in organizing a strong naval force Spain agreed to surrender the Virginius and the remainder of her crew. This was done Dec. 16, and while the Virginius was being convoyed to New York it mysteriously sunk off North Carolina.

Fillmore, Millard

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