; born in Leeds, Me.
, Nov. 8, 1830; graduated at Bowdoin College in 1850, and at West Point
in 1854; entered the ordnance corps, and became instructor in mathematics at West Point
He took command of the 3d Maine Regiment in June, 1861, and commanded a brigade at the battle of Bull Run
In September he was made a brigadier-general.
At the battle of fair Oaks
, or seven Pines
(q. v.), he lost his right arm. After the battle of Antietam
(q. v.) he commanded Sumner
's corps; and while Hooker
led the Army of the Potomac, in 1863, he was in command of the 11th Corps.
He was conspicuous at Gettysburg
(q. v.), Lookout Valley
, and Missionary Ridge
; also in the relief of Knoxville
, late in the year.
In 1864 he was in command of the Army of the Tennessee, and was in all of the battles in the Atlanta campaign
The right of Sherman
's army, on its march to the sea, was commanded by him, as well as in the march through the Carolinas afterwards.
In December, 1864, he was made a brigadier-general in the regular army, and was afterwards brevetted major-general.
At the conclusion of the war General Howard
was made commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau
, and held the office until the bureau was closed, in June, 1872.
Trustee and president of Howard University, he resigned in April, 1873.
In 1877 he commanded the expedition against the
Nez Perces Indians
; in 1878 the campaigns against the Bannocks and Piutes; in 1880-82 was superintendent of the Military Academy; in 1886 was promoted to major-general; and, Nov. 8, 1894, was retired.